Cases reported "Hypertension, Pulmonary"

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1/9. High-altitude pulmonary edema in children with underlying cardiopulmonary disorders and pulmonary hypertension living at altitude.

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension has not been described as a predisposing risk factor for high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in children. Previous studies have shown an association of HAPE with abnormally increased pulmonary vasoreactivity to hypoxia but generally normal pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) after recovery. OBJECTIVE: To describe HAPE of relatively rapid onset and its management in a series of children residing at moderate to high altitudes, all of whom had underlying pulmonary hypertension. methods AND RESULTS: From 1997 to 2003, 30 children came to our center with high-altitude illness. Of these, 10 children (aged 4-18 years; male-female ratio, 8:2) living at moderate to high altitudes (1610-3050 m) underwent cardiac catheterization after recovery from HAPE, and all were found to have chronic pulmonary hypertension (mean PAP, 38 /- 9 mm Hg; pulmonary vascular resistance, 8.6 /- 2.8 U x m2). Increases in PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance to hypoxia (16% oxygen) suggest that these children have a reactive pulmonary pressor response and hence are susceptible to HAPE. Six of the 10 patients had predisposing cardiopulmonary abnormalities, and 5 of these 6 patients did not receive a diagnosis prior to the onset of HAPE. Long-term treatment with calcium channel blockers, bosentan, sildenafil citrate, and/or oxygen lowered PAP, improved symptoms, and prevented the recurrence of HAPE. CONCLUSION: Children living at altitude who develop HAPE should undergo screening for diagnosis of underlying cardiopulmonary abnormalities including pulmonary hypertension.
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2/9. A case of chronic mountain sickness diagnosed by routine pulmonary function tests.

    In summary, this is a patient who presented with respiratory acidosis and cor pulmonale. The major diagnostic challenge was in differentiating primary cardiopulmonary disease from a central abnormality of ventilatory drive. The arterial blood gases showed a normal A-a gradient suggesting hypoventilation as the etiology of his hypoxemia. Pulmonary function testing showed air trapping, but a relatively normal FEV1/FVC and airways resistance. The literature suggests that most altitude natives have depressed hypoxemic and hypercapnic drives with a distinct subset demonstrating a profoundly depressed drive to ventilation. This latter group has been labeled as having chronic mountain sickness or Monge's disease. As one might expect, ventilatory control during sleep is also abnormal in these patients with CMS. Our patient indeed showed typical frequent severe desaturations with hypopnea. The diagnosis of CMS in our patient was made with routine arterial blood gases and standard pulmonary function tests. Additional tests of ventilatory responsiveness to oxygen and carbon dioxide could have been performed, but are not necessary to make the diagnosis.
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3/9. Pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease: irreversible vascular changes in young infants.

    Among 280 infants under 1 year of age with congenital heart disease autopsied at the University of colorado health Sciences Center between 1959 and 1978, there were six instances of grade IV1 pulmonary artery hypertension. Five were patients with ventricular septal defect (four associated with other cardiovascular malformations). The sixth was a patient with atrioventricular canal. The youngest was 2 1/2 months of age. Advanced degrees of pulmonary hypertensive arteriopathy (grade IV or more) have been said to be rare in infants, especially under the age of 1 year. The fact that all of these cases occurred within the last few years of the study suggests the possibility of improved supportive care leading to the prolonged survival of infants who might otherwise have died prior to developing severe disease. In addition, the role of altitude in accelerating the arteriopathy must be considered in the present series. In any case, this unexpected increase in the frequency of severe pulmonary hypertensive arteriopathy should stimulate consideration of early surgical correction of the underlying cardiovascular malformation, especially in areas of relatively high altitude.
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4/9. High-altitude pulmonary edema with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The pathophysiology of HAPE remains unclear. A case of HAPE was associated with pulmonary thromboembolism of a left upper pulmonary artery. Pulmonary thromboembolism was an important factor in development of HAPE in this case.
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5/9. Age, altitude, and arrhythmia.

    Continuous electrocardiographic recording by Holter monitor was carried out during a climb to 5,895 m by an unacclimatized 65-year-old man confirmed to be without cardiac disease on rigorous examination. During ascent, marked ventricular ectopy and multiple runs of left ventricular bigeminy developed in association with an increase in P-wave amplitude of lead V2, and unchanged QT interval. With the diminished aerobic stress of descent, bigeminy disappeared, although premature ventricular complexes, apparently of right ventricular origin, remained increased throughout the climb. Arrhythmogenic mechanisms activated by prolonged exercise under hypoxic conditions are reviewed in relation to age.
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6/9. High-altitude pulmonary edema with primary pulmonary hypertension.

    A 43-year-old woman had two episodes of lung edema at moderate altitudes. She had taken slimming pills containing fenfluramine hydrochloride and diethylpropion hydrochloride. At sea level, catheterization of the right side of the heart showed a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 16 mm Hg, which increased to 34 mm Hg with mild exercise in a supine position. An extensive workup failed to identify a cardiac or a pulmonary cause of pulmonary hypertension. This patient experienced mild primary pulmonary hypertension related to the intake of anorexigens, which was revealed by high-altitude pulmonary edema.
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7/9. endothelin-1 and interleukin-8 in high altitude pulmonary oedema.

    We present a case of high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) with pulmonary hypertension and polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), which occurred in a 21 year old man. plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration in BALF were elevated on admission, and returned to normal level at recovery, when the pulmonary artery pressure and the PMN counts in BALF were normal. In addition, e-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in BALF were also slightly increased on admission. These findings suggest that endothelin-1 is a vasoconstrictor which contributes to the pulmonary hypertension in high altitude pulmonary oedema, and that some of the inflammatory mediators play an important role in chemotaxis and accumulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the development of high altitude pulmonary oedema.
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8/9. tricuspid valve repair in a mountaineer.

    Lord Hunt of Everest presented with aortic stenosis but predominant right ventricular failure. He was found to have signs of pulmonary hypertension with a dilated right ventricle, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and right atrial hypertrophy in the absence of elevated pulmonary artery pressures. He is a lifelong mountaineer and we attribute these findings to intermittent prolonged exposure to high altitude.
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keywords = altitude
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9/9. Prolonged ECG abnormalities in a subject with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE).

    High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is an uncommon type of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Few data are available regarding ECG abnormalities in patients with HAPE. They are usually slight and related to acute pulmonary hypertension. This paper describes a case of prolonged ECG abnormalities in a subject with HAPE, with no proven cardiac diseases. The Authors discuss the pathopysiological aspects of this kind of hypoxic-induced right ventricular overload with extensive T-wave negativity in precordial leads.
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ranking = 0.30769230769231
keywords = altitude
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