Cases reported "Hypertension"

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1/294. angiotensin ii blockade in hypertensive dialysis patients.

    Five hypertensive haemodialysis patients have been infused with saralisin. The infusion appears to be a simple diagnostic test separating patients into two groups. First, there are those whose blood pressure does not fall with saralasin pre-dialysis, but does fall with weight removal during dialysis; the blood pressure in these patients can be controlled by a reduction in pre-dialysis weight. Second, there are those whose blood pressure does fall with saralasin either pre- or post-dialysis; their arterial pressure does not fall with weight removal, but can be controlled by anti-hypertensive drugs. In two of the patients who responded to saralasin, the mechanism of the high blood pressure appeared to change from volume dependency, partial or complete, with suppressed renin release, to angiotensin dependency, partial or complete, as weight was removed during dialysis. These patients illustrate the importance of the interaction between volume and the level of angiotensin ii in the maintenance of hypertension.
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2/294. Posttraumatic hypertension secondary to adrenal hemorrhage mimicking pheochromocytoma: case report.

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a mass 3 x 4 cm in size located in the right adrenal gland together with extreme hypertension, tripled urine levels for normetanephrine, and normal plasmatic levels of metanephrines. The patient had suffered a fall from a height of 2.5 meters before hospitalization. [123I]MIBG-scan was repeatedly positive in the area of the right adrenal gland. At laparotomy under alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, the suspected pheochromocytoma was histologically confirmed as hematoma. After resection of the adrenal gland, blood pressure returned to normal without drug therapy as did metanephrine levels in urine. Although adrenal insufficiency after distension of the gland caused by hemorrhage has been reported, there are no data available regarding the mimicking of a hormonally active pheochromocytoma. We conclude that intra-adrenal pressure rise caused by hematoma may cause partial ischemic necrosis to the gland but may also induce reactive hyperplasia with periodic excessive secretion of catecholamines. This interpretation is consistent with the finding that plasma levels of catecholamines were normal in contrast to the urinary normetanephrines in the presented case. It might be worthwhile to investigate patients with intra-adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sustaining multiple injuries and in the posttraumatic course of several months up to 1 or more years together with verification of abnormal urinary excretion of metanephrines as a sign of impaired adrenal function.
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3/294. abducens nerve palsy complicating pregnancy: a case report.

    We report a case presented at 38 weeks gestation with abducens nerve palsy. No specific pathology was found. After reviewing all the previously reported cases, hypertension is found to be a common factor in all cases presenting in late pregnancy. The clinical course is benign and all resolved after delivery.
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4/294. Decreases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity by microvascular decompression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in essential hypertension.

    BACKGROUND: Neurovascular compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla, a major center regulating sympathetic nerve activity, may be causally related to essential hypertension. Microvascular decompression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla decreases elevated blood pressure. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 47-year-old male essential hypertension patient with hemifacial nerve spasms exhibited neurovascular compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla and facial nerve. Microvascular decompression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla successfully reduced blood pressure and plasma and urine norepinephrine levels, low-frequency to high-frequency ratio obtained by power spectral analysis, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests not only that reduction in blood pressure by microvascular decompression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla may be mediated by a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity but also that neurovascular compression of this area may be a cause of blood pressure elevation via increased sympathetic nerve activity.
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5/294. Progression of first degree atrioventricular block to second degree Mobitz type I block during spinal anesthesia associated with induced hypertension.

    A case is presented in which an elderly patient with preexisting first degree atrioventricular (AV) block progressed to second degree Mobitz Type I AV block during spinal anesthesia and associated with hypertension induced by a pure alpha 1 agonist. Second degree AV block caused by increased vagal tone was transient, which resolved as the blood pressure normalized. hypotension due to spinal anesthesia treated with pure alpha 1 agonist can increase AV block in patient with pre-existing first degree heart block.
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6/294. Bell's palsy in an older patient with uncontrolled hypertension due to medication nonadherence.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and inform pharmacists of a rarely reported occurrence of facial palsy in an elderly patient with uncontrolled hypertension resulting from nonadherence to blood pressure medications. CASE SUMMARY: A 62-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the hypertension clinic with left facial weakness, mild eyelid lag, and auricular pain for two days. The patient self-discontinued fosinopril and minoxidil six days and two days prior to developing these symptoms, respectively. A diagnosis of idiopathic peripheral VII cranial nerve lesion was made after ruling out other possible causes. Corticosteroids were not initiated because of this patient's labile hypertension. Palliative therapy was initiated and the left facial paralysis continuously improved during the six months after discharge. DISCUSSION: patients have rarely presented with facial paralysis as the initial feature of severe hypertension. The relationship between facial paralysis and hypertension has been reported in a small number of cases, including several reports of recurrence of paralysis during acute exacerbations of hypertension. A variety of physiologic theories to explain the relationship between facial paralysis and hypertension have been published, including small hemorrhages into the facial canal which have been confirmed by two autopsies. However, the true etiology remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS: The possible relationship between facial paralysis and uncontrolled hypertension has not been reported in pharmacy literature and has been reported only twice in subspecialty medical journals since 1990. pharmacists should be aware of the complications of hypertension and should question patients about signs and symptoms at each visit. While Bell's palsy complicating hypertension does not appear to be a serious complication, pharmacists must appreciate that the patient should be immediately evaluated to rule out a more serious neurologic event.
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7/294. mydriasis and acute pulmonary oedema complicating laparoscopic removal of phaechromocytoma.

    This report describes the perioperative management of an adrenergic crisis occurring following insufflation of the peritoneum for planned laparoscopic surgery for phaechromocytoma. Despite preoperative alpha and beta adrenergic blockade, the occurrence of acute severe hypertension, mydriasis and pulmonary oedema prior to direct surgical manipulation caused the procedure to be abandoned. The severity of the event was unusual and most likely contributed to by haemorrhagic necrosis of the tumour releasing catecholamines. serum levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline at the time were 744,600 and 166,940 pg.ml-1 respectively. Treatment included bolus doses of esmolol, nicardipine and urapidil (an alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist) by constant intravenous infusion and mechanical ventilation. Postoperative cerebral CT scan was normal. An abdominal CT showed central haemorrhagic necrosis of the tumour. Two weeks later, open surgical removal of the phaeochromocytoma was successfully performed under general anaesthesia. Induction of pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopy may be particularly hazardous in a patient with a phaeochromocytoma.
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8/294. calcium-channel blockade can mask the diagnosis of Conn's syndrome.

    A 30-year-old woman presented with hypertension and hypokalaemia, and was found to have primary aldosteronism due to a Conn's adenoma, whose removal cured the hypertension. Before surgery, the characteristic biochemical changes which enabled the diagnosis were completely masked by administration of a calcium-channel blocker, amlodipine. It is likely that widespread use of this class of drugs contributes to under-diagnosis of Conn's syndrome as a curable cause of hypertension.
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9/294. Case 3: A patient with systemic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    hypertension is often referred to as the "silent killer" because most hypertensive patients are asymptomatic until cardiovascular sequelae such as stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, or renal failure occur. LVH is a common finding in patients with hypertension, especially African-Americans. Data from the Framingham Heart Study indicate that LVH is an independent risk factor for major cardiovascular events. In the amlodipine Cardiovascular Community Trial, 37% of 124 hypertensive patients screened by means of echocardiography had LVH at baseline. Although there was no difference in the prevalence of LVH by gender or age, African-American patients were nearly twice as likely to have LVH than white patients (64% vs. 34%, p<0.05). Hence, aggressive therapy to reach target goals outlined in the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High blood pressure (JNC VI) is especially important in this group of patients. Even lifestyle modifications such as weight reduction and limitation of salt intake, if sufficiently aggressive, can lead to regression of LVH, as demonstrated by results of the Treatment of Mild hypertension Study (TOMHS). Most classes of antihypertensive drugs are effective in causing regression of LVH. Vasodilators, such as minoxidil and hydralazine, do not have an effect on regression, possibly because reflex tachycardia and stimulation of catecholamines and the renin-angiotensin system associated with these agents may negate the benefit of reduced afterload. There is some controversy regarding the ability of the angiotensin receptor blockers to reduce LVH. In some studies, these agents were associated with regression, whereas in others they were not. Whether targeting LVH as the primary treatment goal in hypertensive patients will have long-term benefits on outcome above and beyond simply reducing blood pressure is not clear.
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10/294. Presumptive delayed gas embolism after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    A 50-year-old woman, with a history of arterial hypertension treated with beta-blocker and Ca-antagonist, presented cardiac arrest 6 hours after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During surgical intervention, arterial hypotension without any respiratory change was observed. dyspnea, asthenia and anxiety were the clinical signs appearing approximately 2 hours before cardiac arrest. After resuscitation, myocardial infarction, dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm and major pulmonary thromboembolism were excluded. The signs of increased resistance to the right ventricular outflow and the relevant alteration of coagulation tests, lasting only a few hours, suggested venous gas embolism. Subsequently, the patient presented a cortical blindness, persisting at hospital discharge. The anesthetists should be aware about the complication that we observed after laparoscopic surgery. The least sign of cardiorespiratory instability appearing in the postoperative period must be taken into account and signal the need for increased monitoring.
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