Cases reported "Hypertriglyceridemia"

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1/64. clomiphene-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis.

    clomiphene has been available for clinical use since 1960 and has been successfully used to aid fertility in women with certain anovulatory disorders. It is a synthetic estrogen analog, of the triphenylethylene derivative group, and its biochemical structure is similar to that of tamoxifen. Estrogen and tamoxifen lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increase triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In patients with baseline hypertriglyceridemia, these agents can induce severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. The actions of clomiphene on lipid metabolism have not been studied, and to our knowledge, no cases of severe hypertriglyceridemia related to the use of clomiphene have been described. We report the case of a woman who developed 2 episodes of clomiphene-induced hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis while receiving this drug for treatment of infertility. Given the striking structural similarity between clomiphene and tamoxifen, it is likely that clomiphene is capable of inducing severe hypertriglyceridemia in patients with certain underlying lipid disorders by a mechanism similar to that of tamoxifen.
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2/64. lipodystrophy associated with protease inhibitors.

    Lipodystrophies, characterized by reduction of subcutaneous fat over part or all of the body surface, are uncommon. Their causes are unknown. Recently, lipodystrophy has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients taking protease inhibitors, which have been recommended since 1996 as standard therapy for hiv disease in combination with nucleoside analogues. In these cases, lipodystrophy consists of an association of peripheral lipoatrophy with central adiposity. We report four hiv-infected men on protease inhibitors who developed a disfiguring lipodystrophy. In three of them, the protease inhibitor was administered for a mean duration of 21.5 months (range 19-23) with good immunological and virological responses. Patient 4 had been treated for 2 years with successive combinations of protease inhibitors with nucleoside analogues without success. The four patients progressively developed an increase in abdominal girth associated with fat wasting of the face and legs. Two of them had recurrent paronychia of the great toes. Triglyceride levels were moderately increased in all patients, and one had a slightly increased cholesterol level. One patient had elevated glucose and insulin plasma levels during a glucose tolerance test. In two patients, a deep biopsy taken from the thigh showed thinning of the subcutaneous fat without other morphological changes. Computed tomographic scans of the face and abdomen confirmed the loss of almost all subcutaneous fat of the cheek and temporal regions, and abdominal perivisceral fat accumulation. For patients 1-3, the protease inhibitor was replaced by a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Nine months later, dysmorphic changes had not regressed, but lipid abnormalities had returned to normal and the paronychia had disappeared.
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keywords = deficiency
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3/64. Two novel mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene in a family with marked hypertriglyceridemia in heterozygous carriers. Potential interaction with the polymorphic marker D1S104 on chromosome 1q21-q23.

    Two novel mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene are described in an Austrian family: a splice site mutation in intron 1 (3 bp deletion of nucleotides -2 to -4) which results in skipping of exon 2, and a missense mutation in exon 5 which causes an asparagine for histidine substitution in codon 183 and complete loss of enzyme activity. A 5-year-old boy who exhibited all the clinical features of primary hyperchylomicronemia was a compound heterozygote for these two mutations. Nine other family members were investigated: seven were heterozygotes for the splice site mutation, one was a heterozygote for the missense mutation, and one had two wild-type alleles of the LPL gene. LPL activity in the post-heparin plasma of the heterozygotes was reduced to 49;-79% of the mean observed in normal individuals. Two of the heterozygotes had extremely high plasma triglyceride levels; in three of the other heterozygotes the plasma triglycerides were also elevated. As plasma triglycerides in carriers of one defective LPL allele can be normal or elevated, the heterozygotes of this family have been studied for a possible additional cause of the expression of hypertriglyceridemia in these subjects. body mass index, insulin resistance, mutations in other candidate genes (Asn291Ser and Asp9Asn in the LPL gene, apoE isoforms, polymorphisms in the apoA-II gene and in the apoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, and in the IRS-1 gene) could be ruled out as possible factors contributing to the expression of hypertriglyceridemia in this family. A linkage analysis using the allelic marker D1S104 on chromosome 1q21;-q23 suggested that a gene in this region could play a role in the expression of hypertriglyceridemia in the heterozygous carriers of this family, but the evidence was not sufficiently strong to prove this assumption. Nevertheless, this polymorphic marker seems to be a good candidate for further studies.
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4/64. Use of fenofibrate in the management of protease inhibitor-associated lipid abnormalities.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) protease inhibitors are associated with several metabolic abnormalities including hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. fenofibrate is a new lipid-lowering agent for adults with very high triglyceride levels that was administered to two hiv-positive patients who were taking protease inhibitors and developed hypertriglyceridemia. Starting dosages were 134 and 201 mg/day, and were increased to 268 mg/day in both patients. Triglyceride levels decreased from 1450 to 337 mg/dl (76.8%) and from 1985 to 322 mg/dl (83.8%), respectively, after 10 months of therapy. High-density lipoprotein levels increased in both patients.
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ranking = 0.50202032819236
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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5/64. Chronic hepatitis c beta-interferon-induced severe hypertriglyceridaemia with apolipoprotein E phenotype E3/2.

    The mechanisms of hypertriglyceridaemia and changes in plasma lipoprotein subfractions by beta-interferon treatment were studied in a hepatitis c patient with apo E phenotype E3/2. plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) were increased by treatment with 6 x 10(6) beta-interferon and reached 8.06 mmol/l at 4 weeks of treatment. Low energy and low fat diet reduced them to half the maximal level. plasma levels of LDL1 (1.019 < d < 1.045)-C, LDL2 (1.045 < d < 1.063)-C, HDL2-C and HDL3-C were 0.39, 0.31, 0.21 and 0.28 mmol/l, respectively, which are low, but the plasma levels of IDL, which is a remnant of TG-rich lipoproteins, was normal at 7 weeks of treatment. The distribution of plasma lipoprotein subfractions returned to normal after interferon treatment was discontinued. The mass and activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were reduced to half the baseline level by interferon treatment. The activity of hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) which transforms IDL to LDL was normal. The patient's apo E phenotype was E3/2; with that phenotype the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins and IDL through the receptors of the remnant and LDL is impaired. But the IDL plasma level was normal, probably because of normal HTGL activity and high LDL-receptor activity. Lymphocyte LDL-receptor activity was double that of the control. We conclude that interferon caused the low mass and activity of LPL which in turn caused the hypertriglyceridaemia. And no retention of the remnant of TG-rich lipoproteins in this patient with apo E3/2 and low levels of LDL subfractions was due to the active removal of them through LDL-receptors as well as the impaired production of them by suppression of LPL by interferon.
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keywords = lipoprotein
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6/64. tamoxifen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis.

    tamoxifen exhibits favorable effects on the lipid and lipoprotein profile since it decreases the total and LDL cholesterol levels as well as the Lp(a) levels. Additionally, a small increase in serum triglycerides is commonly found after tamoxifen administration. However, severe hypertriglyceridemia which can sometimes be associated with life-threatening complications is occasionally noticed. Herein, we describe a patient who developed tamoxifen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. An analysis of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms as well as a review of the relevant literature is also provided.
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7/64. Familial splenomegaly: macrophage hypercatabolism of lipoproteins associated with apolipoprotein E mutation [apolipoprotein E (delta149 Leu)].

    splenomegaly with sea-blue histiocytes is not associated with dyslipidemia, except in severe cases of hypertriglyceridemia, tangier disease, or lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. We describe two kindreds in which the sea-blue histiocyte syndrome was associated with an apoE variant in the absence of severe dyslipidemia. Both patients presented with mild hypertriglyceridemia and splenomegaly. After splenectomy both patients developed severe hypertriglyceridemia. Pathological evaluation of the spleen revealed the presence of sea-blue histiocytes. A mutation of apoE was demonstrated, with a 3-bp deletion resulting in the loss of a leucine at position 149 in the receptor-binding region of the apoE molecule [apoE (delta149 Leu)]. Although both probands were unrelated, they were of French Canadian ancestry, suggesting the possibility of a founder effect. In summary, we describe two unrelated probands with primary sea-blue histiocytosis who had normal or mildly elevated serum triglyceride concentrations that markedly increased after splenectomy. In addition, we provide evidence linking the syndrome to an inherited dominant mutation in the apoE gene, a 3-bp deletion on the background of an apoE 3 allele that causes a derangement in lipid metabolism and leads to splenomegaly in the absence of severe hypertriglyceridemia.
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ranking = 6.0020203281924
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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8/64. Apolipoprotein E1 Baden (Arg(180)-->Cys). A new apolipoprotein E variant associated with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E mediates the removal of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein remnants from plasma. It is polymorphic in sequence and the products of the three common alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, epsilon 4) differ from one another in their binding to lipoprotein receptors. ApoE2 is defective in binding and homozygosity for apoE2 is associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP). Other rare isoforms of apoE have been found to be associated either with dominant type III HLP or with the development of hypertriglyceridemia. We identified a 42 year-old hypertriglyceridemic woman with an apoE phenotype 3/1. Restriction isotyping using AflIII/HaeII resulted in an apparent apoE genotype 3/2, suggesting that the mutation occurred in an epsilon 2 allele. dna sequence analysis revealed a C-->T point mutation at the first position of the codon for amino acid residue 180 of the mature apoE. This predicted a change Arg(180)-->Cys. The mutation altered a recognition site for the endonuclease HaeII, which allowed us rapidly to screen for this mutation. In relatives of the proband, apoE1 Baden was consistently associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Similar to other apoE variants linked to hypertriglyceridemia, the Arg(180)-->Cys mutation is located within the lipid binding domain of apoE. We therefore suggest that apoE1 Baden may cause hypertrigylceridemia, possibly by inhibiting the hydrolysis of triglycerides associated with very low density lipoproteins.
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ranking = 6.5
keywords = lipoprotein
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9/64. Eruptive xanthomas and chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease.

    Because hyperlipidemia may present as xanthomas, a dermatologist may be the first to diagnose these skin lesions and associated lipid abnormalities. Xanthomas are of concern because of their association with coronary artery disease and pancreatitis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old white male with chest pain and eruptive xanthomas. Laboratory tests revealed severe hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes mellitus, and the histopathology of the skin lesions was consistent with eruptive xanthomas. Surprisingly, even with overwhelming risk factors for both atherosclerosis and pancreatitis, this patient did not show evidence of either disease process. After initiating therapy for the diabetes and hyperlipidemia, the patient has had no recurrence of chest pain, and the skin lesions have gradually resolved. The most likely explanation for this patient's pattern of symptoms and laboratory results is the chylomicronemia syndrome, which can be seen in patients with type I or type V hyperlipoproteinemia.
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10/64. Characterization of an apolipoprotein e3 variant (Arg 145-->His) associated with mild hypertriglyceridemia.

    In a proband (21-yr-old female), we previously identified an apolipoprotein (apo) E variant, apoE3 (Arg 145-->His), with an isoelectric point midway between apoE3 and apoE2. ApoE gene analysis of 4 of the proband's kin indicated that 3 possess the same variant. All 4 had a high concentration of apoE in plasma, while 3 of 4 had hypertriglyceridemia. In the proband (who had no hypertriglyceridemia), most apoE was distributed in slow-alpha lipoproteins (predominantly in the form of apoE-AII heterodimer) and in larger molecules with apparent molecular weights of 80 and 100 kDa. In the proband's brother (with hypertriglyceridemia), however, most apoE was distributed in slow pre-beta lipoproteins, predominantly in the form of monomeric apoE. In each subject, the concentration of apoE3 variant was significantly higher than that of normal apoE3 in the predominant apoE-rich lipoprotein. The apoE3 variant, which displayed a slightly reduced binding ability to LDL-receptor and heparin, may induce an accumulation of apoE-rich lipoproteins. These observations suggest that the difference in distribution of apoE3 variant in plasma lipoproteins between the proband and her brother (combined with its reduced affinity for the LDL receptor) may provide key insights into the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridemia.
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ranking = 5
keywords = lipoprotein
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