Cases reported "Hypertrophy"

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1/5. Virus-cell interaction in oligodendroglia, astroglia and phagocyte in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. An electron microscopic study.

    A 46-year-old female, with an 11 year history of malignant lymphoreticular disease, developed a neurological illness clinically manifested by a focal mass lesion in the left frontal lobe. In biopsied tissue, immunofluorescence study revealed the presence of JC antigen in the glial cells. Histologically, the lesion was characteristic of PML consisting of PML consisting of focal necrosis in the subcortical white matter, numerous fat laden macrophages and marked hypertrophy of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. By electron microscopy, hypertrophic astrocytes contained intranuclear viral particles consistent with papova virions and aggregates of intracytoplasmic viral particles consisting of a single to several virions tightly surrounded by a single membrane. The membrane appeared to have been derived from that of the cellular vesicles. Fusion of the virus-associated membrane to the astroglial plasmalemma occurred when the virions appeared to shift towards extracellular space. The virioncontaining astrocytes showed cytoplasmic "fibrillar hypertrophy" similar to the characteristic gigantic astroglias of PML. This fact would provide an additional evidence that these gigantic cells, although lacking identifiable viral structures, were the result of anaplastic transformation by jc virus. Many virus-bearing astroglias were noted to be in the early stage of cellular necrosis, of "edematous degeneration". This further indicates that the jc virus is capable of inducing both lytic and abortive astroglial infections. Many oligodendroglias were hypertrophic due to the presence of intranuclear viral particles and markedly increased numbers of microtubules and free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Membrane-bound intracytoplasmic viral particles were also noted in the oligodendroglias. Some fat laden macrophages contained large intracytoplasmic viral bodies, presumably originating from phagocytized virus-bearing cells.
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keywords = astrocyte
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2/5. inclusion bodies in cerebral cortical astrocytes: a new change of astrocytes.

    A unique pathological finding of astrocytes was observed in the brain of a 20-year-old man who had severe physical and mental retardation. The brain was malformed showing micropolygyria in several cortical areas. A large number of hypertrophic astrocytes with eosinophilic granular substances in their cytoplasm were found throughout the cerebral cortex. Several staining procedures and electron microscopical examinations were carried out on these intracytoplasmic inclusion. It was found that the appearance and staining character of these inclusions were different from other astrocytic changes, especially the Rosenthal fiber, described so far. The authors consider that these inclusion bodies in cerebral cortical astrocytes represent new pathological changes of astrocytes that appear to be associated with malformation of the brain.
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keywords = astrocyte
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3/5. Olivary enlargement: stage of initial astrocytic changes.

    light and electron microscopic morphometry was carried out on an autopsy patient with olivary enlargement and secondary degeneration of the central tegmental tract due to a pontine tegmental lesion. The authors found active participation of neuropile astrocytic processes in the early stage of olivary enlargement before the appearance of gemistocytic astrocytes. The presence of a new stage between the stages of olivary hypertrophy and culminant olivary enlargement was clarified for the first time through electron microscopic and morphometric analysis.
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keywords = astrocyte
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4/5. Olivary hypertrophy in a case with palatal myoclonus: light- and electron-microscopic study.

    This is a report on the ultrastructural finding of the olivary hypertrophy in a case with palatal myoclonus. By light microscopy two types of neuronal changes were observed in the inferior olivary nucleus, i.e. the central chromatolysis and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Both types were also recognized by electron microscopy and the cytoplasmic vascuolation was identified as the vesiculated endoplasmic reticulum. In the reactive astrocytes, mitochondria were strikingly proliferated.
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keywords = astrocyte
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5/5. Binswanger's disease. A rare cause of dementia in elderly persons.

    A 80-year-old in-patient with abnormal behaviors was strangulated in a hospital bed by another in-patient while he could not escape from the violence because of being restrained to the bed with safety belts. Neuropathological examination of the victim's brain showed characteristic pathological changes of Binswanger's disease (BD), a rare cause of dementia inducing abnormal behaviors. The authors methodically documented BD of the victim and at least justified the restraint as a preventive measure of his abnormal behaviors. Although the etiology of BD is unknown, immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein of the white matter lesions showed neither hyperplasia nor hypertrophy of astrocytes. This result suggested that astrocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of BD.
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