Cases reported "Hypertrophy"

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1/89. hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy of the lower leg following chronic radiculopathy and neuropathy: imaging findings in two patients.

    Enlargement of the ipsilateral muscle compartment is an exceptional finding in patients with chronic radiculopathy, peripheral nerve injury, anterior horn cell diseases, or acquired peripheral neuropathy. We report radiographic, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI findings in a patient with chronic S1 radiculopathy and another with chronic neuropathy of the common fibular nerve (L4-S2), both presenting with painless enlargement of the calf muscles.
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2/89. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with multiple hypertrophic nerves in intracranial, and intra- and extra-spinal segments.

    Hypertrophic nerves have occasionally been seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), but most are in the cauda equina. We report a case with CIDP in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement demonstrated hypertrophy of various peripheral nerves including multiple cranial nerves. Interestingly, none showed neurological signs corresponding to the lesions, except for clinical signs consistent with CIDP. MRI can be useful for the detection of silent, but abnormal nerve involvement in CIDP.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = neuropathy
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3/89. Hypertrophic inflammatory neuropathy involving bilateral brachial plexus.

    BACKGROUND: The present case is an example of hypertrophic inflammatory neuropathy (HIN). This entity is a rare tumor-like, chronic inflammatory, focal or multifocal, mainly demyelinating neuropathy of unknown origin, most frequently involving the brachial plexus. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a 67-year-old man presenting with a nodular mass in his right supraclavicular fossa. A nodular mass grossly resembling a schwannoma originating from a single nerve fascicle was surgically removed from the right C6 spinal nerve. Histologically, endoneurial edema, fibrosis, focal chronic inflammation, and extensive "onion bulb" formation were seen. Electron microscopy studies and immunohistochemistry proved that the onion bulb-forming cells were schwannian in nature and that the whorls of onion bulbs surrounded a generally demyelinated axon. Three months following surgery the patient developed acute painless paralysis of his right biceps brachii muscle that rapidly reversed; after that he remained neurologically asymptomatic. MRI revealed multiple fusiform mass lesions involving the brachial plexus bilaterally. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated a bilateral, asymmetrical, mainly demyelinating neuropathy involving the brachial plexus; they failed to reveal any abnormality suggestive of generalized neuropathy. CONCLUSION: HIN is different from other focal tumor-like neuropathies and in particular from localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN).
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = neuropathy
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4/89. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis: clinicoradiological spectrum and therapeutic options.

    OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis is a rare disease, of undetermined pathogenesis, that is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the dura mater. methods: We encountered six patients with idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis and analyzed their clinical presentations, radiological findings, and treatment. RESULTS: In the six patients, the main manifestations were cranial nerve palsies and headache. Three associations were present, namely optic neuropathy, tolosa-hunt syndrome, and diabetes insipidus. gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was diagnostic, showing intense dural enhancement in a linear or nodular pattern. The responses to corticosteroid therapy were better for patients who exhibited linear, rather than nodular, dural enhancement. For one patient, surgical decompression of the superior orbital fissure provided lasting relief. The course of the disease followed one of three patterns, i.e., sustained remission, relapse with corticosteroid independence, or relapse with corticosteroid dependence. pulse corticosteroid therapy provided significant relief, while reducing the daily corticosteroid requirement and avoiding side effects, for a corticosteroid-dependent relapsing patient. CONCLUSION: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis exhibits varied clinical courses. It is important to prevent irreversible cranial neuropathy during the active phase of the disease, using daily administration of corticosteroids, pulse corticosteroid therapy, or surgical decompression.
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keywords = neuropathy
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5/89. Naevus varicosus osteohypertrophicus. An early diagnostic approach.

    Naevus varicosus osteohypertrophicus (synonym Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome KTS) is relatively rare circumscribed, usually quadrant-related gigantism with vascular hyperplasia or malformations based on the embryonic development. The authors observed an 18- and a 30-year-old female with a triad of symptoms: cutaneous nevus flammeus, varicose and dilated veins, and bony and soft tissue hypertrophy of the low limb. The second patient also had two venous ulcers as a dominant clinical feature--a rare manifestation of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. A diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome was made by clinical observations, laboratory findings, dermoscan, radiological examination of the bones of the limb, Doppler ultrasonography, photopletismography and venoscan. A bone isotope scan was also done to the first patient. Making an early diagnosis of this sporadic congenital disease with unknown aetiology is important in order to be able to provide early prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Klippel and Trenaunay in 1900 were the first to describe a patient with the simultaneous appearance of osteohypertrophy, hemangiomas and varicose veins involving one extremity [1]. In 1907 Parkes and Weber reported a similar syndrome--they described a patient who had dilated and pulsatile arteries in the affected region including the presence of arterio-venous communications. In 1918 they used the compromise term "haemangiectatic hypertrophy" to embrace all conditions which were associated with congenital vascular malformations including A-V anastomoses associated with bone and soft tissue hypertrophy. Most authors are agreed that Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and the syndrome of multiple congenital arterio-venous fistulae are two separate features of the Parkes Weber hypertrophy. KTS is manifesting with a triad of symptoms: cutaneous vascular nevus (more frequently nevus flammeus type), superficial venous varicosities and hypertrophy of the affected limb. Usually one quadrant of the body is involved: quite often a leg, an arm, lateral side of the trunk, very rarely the face. More than one quadrant and bilateral involvement are rarely affected. Naevus flammeus appeared at birth. It is extremely variable both in extent and in color--the latter ranging from pale pink to deep purple. Veinous varicosities appear in childhood and adolescence. They are painful and may be complicated by superficial or deep venous thrombosis and rarely, ulceration. hypertrophy of the affected extremities is due to bone and soft tissue hypertrophy. KTS can be associated with other developmental anomalies such as: polydactyly, syndactyly, oligodactyly [2] macrocephaly, blue nevus, epidermal naevus, venous malformations.
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ranking = 6.4504157790056E-5
keywords = deep
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6/89. Chronic demyelinating hypertrophic brachial plexus neuropathy.

    A patient with unilateral, painless, chronic progressive upper limb sensorimotor deficit showed electrophysiological evidence of a focal demyelinating neuropathy with almost complete conduction block across the brachial plexus. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed marked brachial plexus hypertrophy. Intravenous immunoglobulin led to fast and complete recovery, maintained by intermittent perfusions. Hypertrophic brachial plexus neuropathy can be a presentation of focal chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Objective and quantitative assessment of hand function is useful to evaluate treatment results and to optimize treatment regimens.
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ranking = 1.1666666666667
keywords = neuropathy
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7/89. Hemimasticatory spasm associated with localized scleroderma and facial hemiatrophy.

    OBJECTIVES: To report a case and discuss the mechanism of hemimasticatory spasm. DESIGN: Case report. PATIENT: A 37-year-old woman had a 3-year history of involuntary spasms of the right masseter muscle in association with localized scleroderma and facial hemiatrophy. Electrophysiological studies revealed a normal blink reflex. However, the masseter reflex and silent period were absent on the affected side. Distal latency and compound muscle action potential of the masseter nerve were normal. Needle electromyography demonstrated irregular bursts of motor unit potentials similar to those described in hemifacial spasm. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the head showed mild hypertrophy of the masseter muscle and atrophy of subcutaneous fatty tissues on the affected side. Local injection of botulinum toxin A into the masseter muscle resolved the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSION: On the basis of clinical and electrophysiological findings, focal demyelination of motor branches of the trigeminal nerve owing to deep tissue changes is suggested as the cause of abnormal excitatory electrical activities resulting in involuntary masticatory movement.
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ranking = 3.2252078895028E-5
keywords = deep
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8/89. Solitary neurofibroma of the anal canal: report of two cases.

    Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors commonly found in patients afflicted with neurofibromatosis-1. In the absence of multiple neurofibromas or a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis-1, neurofibromas are referred to as solitary and have been reported to involve the skin, subcutaneous tissue, deep soft tissue, and viscera of almost all areas of the body. A neurofibroma involving the anal canal is a rare entity, with only one report in the literature. We present two cases in which large masses involving the anal canal of elderly females were locally resected and proved to be neurofibromas by histopathology. Although rare, these tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an anal mass, because resection alone is the treatment of choice.
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ranking = 3.2252078895028E-5
keywords = deep
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9/89. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dominant hypertrophy in the right anterobasal region of the ventricular septum: a case report.

    A 62-year-old man was referred to our hospital for investigation of abnormal electrocardiography findings. The mean frontal plane QRS axis was directed toward the right superior quadrant(-125 degrees). Terminal S waves were present in all 3 bipolar standard leads and an R wave in lead aVR. RS complex was seen in lead V1 and deep S waves in leads V2-V6. Left ventricular hypertrophy associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy was suspected based on transthoracic echocardiography, but the echocardiographic quality was poor. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with massive wall thickening involving the right anterobasal region of the ventricular septum. magnetic resonance imaging may provide useful information about the distribution of ventricular myocardial hypertrophy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and unusual electrocardiography findings.
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ranking = 3.2252078895028E-5
keywords = deep
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10/89. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II (HMSN-II) and neurogenic muscle hypertrophy: a case report and literature review.

    We present two siblings affected by hereditary motor and sensory type II neuropathy (HMSN-II) with neuromyotonia, and associated with muscle hypertrophy of the thighs and calves in one. We review the literature about the association between HMSN-II, neuromyotonia and muscle hypertrophy. Muscle enlargement in HMSN-II is rare and may be sporadic or under genetic control. In our patient, muscle hypertrophy was sporadic and probably due to neuromyotonia. The relationship between muscle hypertrophy and neuromyotonia can be deduced by the fact that both conditions were reduced after diphenylhydantoin treatment (200 mg/day).
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keywords = neuropathy
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