Cases reported "Hypesthesia"

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1/20. Endoscopic supraorbital nerve neurolysis.

    Endoscopic surgery, performed through small incisions, yields therapeutic results equivalent or superior to those obtained using the conventional approach. The technique has been established in laparoscopic cholecystectomic surgery. In plastic surgery, endoscopic techniques were first developed in aesthetic procedures and have been reported to be useful in face-lift operations, breast reconstruction, muscle flap harvesting and subcutaneous surgery. Endobrow lift has become a more and more popular aesthetic procedure. The endoscope provides an excellent magnification and, through a high power light source, a very good illumination of the operative field. It explains why the endoscope is more and more used in reconstructive procedures. We report the case of a patient suffering from a posttraumatic entrapment of the right supraorbital nerve which was released by an endoscopic approach.
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2/20. A child with neurofibromatosis-1 and a lumbar epidural arteriovenous malformation.

    A 10-year-old child with neurofibromatosis-1 was evaluated for progressive lumbar scoliosis, back pain, and foot numbness. magnetic resonance imaging showed several lumbar intraspinal and extraspinal masses consistent with neurofibromas. The mass at L3-L5 compressed the thecal sac and was thought to be the source of the symptoms. On operative exploration, a lumbar epidural arteriovenous malformation was found, which was removed in its entirety. The child's back pain and foot numbness resolved. Epidural arteriovenous malformations in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 are rare and have been reported only in the cervical spine. Our finding of a lumbar epidural arteriovenous malformation in a child with neurofibromatosis-1 demonstrates that vascular anomalies can be present throughout the spine of patients with neurofibromatosis-1 and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurofibromatosis-1-related epidural mass.
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3/20. Spinal intramedullary cavernoma: clinical presentation and surgical outcome.

    OBJECT: Improved neuroimaging techniques have led to an increase in the reported cases of intramedullary cavernomas. The purpose of this study was to define the spectrum of presenting signs and symptoms in patients with spinal intramedullary cavernomas and to analyze the role of surgery as a treatment for these lesions. methods: The authors reviewed the charts of 16 patients who underwent surgery for spinal intramedullary cavernomas. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies. Cavernomas represented 14 (5.0%) of 280 intramedullary lesions found in adults and two (1.1%) of 181 intramedullary lesions found in pediatric cases. A posterior laminectomy and surgical resection of the malformation were performed in all 16 patients. CONCLUSIONS: magnetic resonance imaging is virtually diagnostic for spinal cavernoma lesions. patients with spinal intramedullary cavernomas presented with either an acute onset of neurological compromise or a slowly progressive neurological decline. Acute neurological decline occurs secondary to hemorrhage within the spinal cord. Chronic progressive myelopathy occurs due to microhemorrhages and the resulting gliotic reaction to hemorrhagic products. There is no evidence that cavernomas increase in size. The rate of rebleeding is unknown, but spinal cavernomas appear to be clinically more aggressive than cranial cavernomas, probably because the spinal cord is less tolerant of mass lesions. Complete surgical removal of the cavernoma was possible in 15 of 16 of the authors' cases.
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4/20. Superior orbital fissure syndrome: current management concepts.

    The superior orbital fissure syndrome is an uncommon complication of craniofacial fractures: middle-third facial fractures and lesions of the retrobulbar space. This article reviews the anatomy and etiology of the superior orbital fissure as it relates to pathophysiology and physical findings. Cases reported in the literature are reviewed, emphasizing diagnosis and established treatment options. Two cases are presented and their management discussed, including the use of pre- and postoperative steroids as an adjunct to standard fracture reduction and stabilization therapy.
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5/20. Spinal wedge osteotomy by a single posterior approach for correction of severe and rigid kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: Seven patients with severe angular kyphotic deformity of the spine were treated by circumferential spinal wedge osteotomy using a single posterior approach. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical outcomes for seven patients with severe angular kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis treated by spinal wedge osteotomy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Excellent surgical outcomes have been reported for procedures such as hemivertebra excision, vertebral body resection, and spinal osteotomy for angular kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis. However, the safety and efficacy of these procedures for severe and rigid deformities have not been established. methods: The surgical procedure involves circumferential exposure of the apex vertebra to the anterior aspect using a single posterior approach. Sparing only the spinal cord, the surgeon performs circumferential wedge bone resection, closure, correction, and stabilization by instrumentation while monitoring the spinal cord. Seven patients (3 kyphotics and 4 kyphoscoliotics) treated by this procedure were evaluated for a minimum of 2 years. Underlying conditions comprised five cases of congenital deformity with hemivertebrae and two cases of skeletal dysplasias. The mean age at surgery was 16.5 years, and the mean follow-up period was 6.9 years. RESULTS: Before surgery, the mean kyphotic curve was 105.4 degrees (range, 68-150 degrees ), and the mean scoliotic curve was 85.3 degrees (range, 60-132 degrees ). After surgery, the curves averaged 48.9 degrees and 40 degrees, respectively, yielding corrections of 52.9% and 54.9%. The mean posterior trunk shift in global sagittal balance was 21 mm before surgery, becoming 3 mm after surgery. Progressive spinal cord dysfunction had developed in three patients before surgery. In all three, postoperative neurologic improvement was observed. postoperative complications consisted of transient, unilateral leg paresis in two patients. No incidents of infection or pseudarthrosis were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal wedge osteotomy by the single posterior approach is a reliable and safe surgical technique for correcting severe rigid angular kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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6/20. Delayed onset of altered sensation following dental implant placement and mental block local anesthesia: a case report.

    A case of a delayed-onset post-operative altered sensation of the mental nerve is reported with speculations as to etiology. There is a discussion concerning intraoperative radiographs and osteotomy positioning. When postoperative altered sensation occurs, etiologic considerations should always include local anesthetic administration technique. The importance of pulp testing from the first molar to the contralateral lateral incisor is key to determining whether the deficit is in the mandibular nerve or only the mental nerve, which may be a result of mental block local anesthetic administration and not implant placement. This differentiation may be important in treatment and/or legal exposure. The altered sensation was probably caused by the mental block anesthetic technique. The partial anesthetic area in this case was probably a result of crossover innervation from the contralateral mental nerve.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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7/20. Bilateral lower limb hypoesthesia after radical prostatectomy in the hyperlordotic position under general anesthesia.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of postoperative bilateral lower limb hypoesthesia occurring after surgery under general anesthesia in the hyperlordotic position for radical prostatectomy. The possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are discussed. Clinical features: This 52-yr-old patient was slightly overweight and was on fenofibrate for hypercholesterolemia. He had no history of cardiovascular disease. Arterial blood pressure was overall well maintained except for a very transient hypotension at surgical incision. Blood loss was moderate and did not require transfusion. Soon after recovery, the patient complained of paresthesia in both legs and neurological examination revealed bilateral lower limb hypoesthesia, compatible with an incomplete medullar syndrome at the level of T12-L1. On postoperative day one, a plain magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a hyperintense signal in the spinal cord from T8 to T9 on T2-weighted images consistent with ischemia of the spinal cord whereas the heterogeneous aspect of the spinal cord was due to an unusually high fat content of the epidural space. Neurological signs improved progressively and one week later the patient had recovered normal sensory functions of both lower limbs. CONCLUSION: Although arterial ischemia is the most common cause of postoperative spinal cord injury, other mechanisms may be invoked. We raise the possibility that a combination of intraoperative risk factors (hypotension, excessive postural changes) with anatomic predispositions (increased epidural venous pressure or fat content, previous bone disease) can produce arterial and/or venous ischemia of the spinal cord.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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8/20. conversion disorder mimicking Dejerine-Roussy syndrome (thalamic stroke) after spinal cord stimulation.

    OBJECTIVE: Dejerine-Roussy syndrome is a complex of various signs and symptoms in patients suffering from central thalamic pain, usually secondary to a vascular etiology. We describe a patient presenting with the potentially devastating signs and symptoms of thalamic stroke, at least temporally related to spinal cord stimulator implantation. The etiology of the patient's affliction was subsequently revealed to be a conversion disorder.Case report A 37-year-old woman presented for spinal cord stimulation as treatment of her brachial plexopathy after failure of conservative therapy. Before implantation, she underwent a clinical interview with a psychologist and psychometric testing. No psychological pathology was detected. Trial and permanent implantation of the cervical stimulator lead and pulse generator were uneventful. Eleven days after receiving the permanent implant, the patient experienced right-sided hemicorporal numbness and burning dysesthesia. The patient was admitted, and a diagnosis of Dejerine-Roussy syndrome (thalamic stroke) was made. She was discharged, and her symptomatology waxed and waned over a period of weeks. The patient was subsequently admitted for psychiatric evaluation because of anxiety attacks. During her protracted admission, her psychiatrists strongly suspected a conversion disorder. The stimulator was removed, and the patient received supportive care only. Within 6 months, sensory symptoms and all motor deficits had completely resolved. CONCLUSIONS: Despite careful preoperative evaluation, latent psychosocial issues may limit the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation. We present a case of conversion disorder masquerading as Dejerine-Roussy syndrome after spinal cord stimulation. The implications of the failure of preoperative psychological evaluation and screening to avert implantation are discussed.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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9/20. Successful surgical treatment of angiosarcoma of the spine: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: To report primary angiosarcoma of the T8 vertebra, which was successfully managed with en bloc spondylectomy and postoperative chemotherapy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first documented example of successful treatment of angiosarcoma of the spine. methods: Angiosarcoma of the eighth thoracic vertebra was diagnosed in a 48-year-old man with impending neurologic deficit. Imaging findings revealed a nonspecific high-grade lesion. A total spondylectomy of T8 by en bloc resection was performed. The defect of the vertebral body was reconstructed with a apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic prosthesis; moreover, the T6-T10 vertebrae were instrumented by the pedicle screw, hook and rod system. The histologic diagnosis of the excised specimen was high-grade angiosarcoma. Postoperative chemotherapy was implemented to prevent local recurrence and distant metastasis. RESULTS: No sign of local recurrence or metastasis was evident 5 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: This case is the first documented example of successful treatment of angiosarcoma of the thoracic spine. Radiologic findings were nonspecific; consequently, correct diagnosis was established by pathologic examination. Immediate, aggressive operative treatment and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy afforded a satisfactory outcome.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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10/20. facial nerve schwannomas: different manifestations and outcomes.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to provide data on the different clinical presentations of facial nerve schwannoma, the appropriate planning for the management of schwannoma of various origins, and the predictive outcomes of surgical management. methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. We reviewed 8 consecutive cases of facial nerve schwannoma diagnosed and managed between 1993 and 2001. RESULTS: facial nerve schwannomas originated in the internal auditory canal (IAC) (2 cases), parotid gland (2 cases), intratemporal portion (3 cases), and stylomastoid foramen (1 case). Tumor of the stylomastoid foramen presented as an intra- and extratemporal mass. The initial presenting symptom of the 8 patients was facial nerve paralysis in 4 patients, hearing loss in 2, facial numbness in 1, and an infra-auricular mass in 1. Facial palsy occurred in 7 patients during the course of the disease. One patient with a mass in the parotid gland did not show facial palsy up to 1 year after presentation of the initial symptom (facial numbness). facial nerve paralysis was most severe in intratemporal tumors and less severe in parotid tumors. The patients with IAC suffered from hearing loss and intermittent vertigo and showed decreased vestibular function. The patients with intratemporal tumors also complained of hearing loss. The tumors were completely removed by superficial parotidectomy for parotid tumors; the translabyrinthine approach for 1 IAC tumor and 1 intratemporal tumor; the middle fossa approach for the other IAC tumor; the transmastoid approach for mastoid tumors; and the infratemporal fossa approach for intratemporal and extratemporal tumors. End-to-end cable grafts for the facial nerve were performed in 5 out of 8 cases. In 2 cases, the facial nerve was preserved after the resection of the mass. One case showed complete loss of the peripheral branch of the facial nerve. CONCLUSIONS: facial nerve schwannoma can present in various ways. By examining the site of origin and the presenting symptoms and signs, we were able to diagnose facial nerve schwannoma preoperatively. According to the operative management of the facial nerve, the postoperative outcome of facial function could be estimated. Our finding could be pivotal in the management of the facial nerve schwannoma.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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