Cases reported "Hypocalcemia"

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1/10. hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces urinary calcium excretion in two Japanese patients with gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene.

    Gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) gene cause autosomal dominant and/or sporadic hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria. Because treatment of the hypocalcemia with vitamin d and/or calcium in patients with such mutations results in increased hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal impairment, its use should be limited to alleviating the symptoms of symptomatic patients. Because thiazide diuretics have been successfully used to treat patients with hypercalciuria and hypoparathyroidism, they are theoretically useful in reducing urine calcium excretion and maintaining serum calcium levels in patients with gain-of-function mutations of the CaR gene. In this study, we report on the clinical course, molecular analysis, and effects of hydrochlorothiazide therapy in two Japanese patients with gain-of-function mutations of the CaR gene. Within a few weeks after birth, they developed generalized tonic seizures due to hypocalcemia (serum calcium values: 1.1 mmol/liter and 1.3 mmol/liter, respectively). Despite treatment with the standard dose of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in one patient and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the other, acceptable serum calcium levels near the lower limit of normal were not established, and their urinary calcium excretion inappropriately increased. Addition of hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg) reduced their urinary calcium excretion and maintained their serum calcium concentrations near the lower limit of normal, allowing the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) doses to be reduced, and it alleviated their symptoms. A heterozygous missense mutation was identified in both patients. In one patient, the mutation was A843E in the seventh transmembrane domain of the CaR, and in the other it was L125P in the N-terminal extracellular domain. in vitro transient transfection of their mutant CaR cDNAs into hek293 cells shifted the concentration-response curve of Ca(2 ) to the left. In conclusion, two sporadic cases of hypercalciuric hypocalcemia were due to de novo gain-of-function mutations of the CaR gene. hydrochlorothiazide with vitamin d(3) successfully reduced the patients' urinary calcium excretion and controlled their serum calcium concentrations and symptoms. Thiazide diuretics are effective in patients with gain-of function mutations of the CaR gene.
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2/10. A family of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with an activating mutation of calcium-sensing receptor gene.

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) caused by activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is characterized by hypocalcemia with inappropriately low concentration of PTH and relative hypercalciuria. Active vitamin d treatment often leads to nephrolithiasis and renal impairment in patients with ADH. However, differential diagnosis between ADH and idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is sometimes very difficult. Here, we report a mutation of CaSR and its functional property found in three generations of a Japanese family. The proband developed seizures at 7 days of age. His mother and elder sister were discovered to have hypoparathyroidism by family survey, but his father was normocalcemic. His grandfather developed heart failure and was found to have hypoparathyroidism. All affected members had been treated with active vitamin D3 and bilateral nephrolithiasis were detected in three of them. dna sequencing revealed that all affected patients had a heterozygous mutation in CaSR gene that causes proline to leucine substitution at codon 221 (P221L). in vitro functional analysis of the mutant CaSR by measuring inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in response to changes of extracellular Ca indicated that this mutation is an activating one and responsible for ADH in this family. Therefore, careful monitoring of urinary Ca excretion before and during treatment of PTH-deficient hypoparathyroidism is very important, and screening of CaSR mutation should be considered in patients with relative hypercalciuria or with a family history of hypocalcemia.
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3/10. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction.

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children can rarely present with severe lactic acidosis in the absence of a high white blood cell count or other complications. Renal tubular dysfunction with hypercalciuria and hypocalcemia in the absence of pre-existing renal disease or concurrent medications has not been described at presentation in childhood ALL. The authors describe a 7-year-old boy with ALL presenting with severe lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction, both of which were refractory to conventional management and resolved rapidly with appropriate chemotherapy.
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4/10. Familial hypomagnesemia--hypercalciuria and pseudotumor cerebri.

    Approximately 30 patients with familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria have been reported. We describe an 8-year-old girl with cardinal findings of familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria (hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesiuria, hypercalciuria, renal insufficiency, hyperuricemia, elevated serum parathormone, hyposthenuria and nephrocalcinosis), who received combination therapy consisting of magnesium salts, thiazide diuretic and potassium supplementation. At the 4-year follow-up investigation under this treatment, the patient was found to have cerebral pseudotumor (increased intracranial pressure with normal or small ventricles on neuroimaging, no evidence of an intracranial mass and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition) with papilledema and visual field defects. Thiazide therapy was terminated and the cerebral pseudotumor disappeared. The authors hypothesize that cerebral pseudotumor in this patient was related to severe hypocalcemia, as a consequence of profound hypomagnesemia induced by protracted thiazide treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a child with familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria who developed pseudotumor cerebri after thiazide therapy.
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5/10. A family with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH): mutational analysis, phenotypic variability and treatment challenges.

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH) is an intriguing syndrome, in which activating mutations of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) have recently been recognised. We describe a kindred with seven affected individuals across three generations, including patients affected in the first decade of life. Age at diagnosis varied from birth to 50 years. Affected members had hypocalcaemia (1.53-1.85 mmol/l), hypercalciuria, low but detectable parathyroid hormone (PTH) and hypomagnesaemia. Four of seven affected individuals were symptomatic (seizures, abdominal pains and paraesthesias), unrelated to severity of hypocalcaemia. Additional complications include nephrocalcinosis (n = 3) and basal ganglia calcification, identified by CT scanning in all five individuals. Symptomatic individuals were treated with calcium and calcitriol to reduce the risk of hypocalcaemic seizures. dna sequence analysis, identified a mutation in exon 3, codon 129 (TGC-->TAC) of the CaSR gene of seven affected family members, resulting in loss of a conserved cysteine residue, potentially disrupting CaSR receptor dimerisation. Thus, a novel mutation was identified in this family, who demonstrate variability of ADHH phenotype and also illustrate the complexities of clinical management. Optimal management of ADHH is difficult and we recommend judicious treatment to avoid an increased risk of nephrocalcinosis.
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6/10. Idiopathic hypercalciuria causing osteoporosis and hypocalcemia.

    Idiopathic hypercalciuria, though a common cause of nephrolithiasis, has not been recognized to cause hypocalcemia and severe bone disease. We describe an adolescent with idiopathic hypercalciuria who presented initially with severe hypocalcemia and osteoporosis and this was later complicated by recurrent renal calculi formation after calcium and vitamin d supplement. After treatment with thiazide, hypercalciuria was controlled and serum biochemistry normalized. While idiopathic renal hypercalciuria may cause a negative calcium balance in adults, a variant of this syndrome with severe renal calcium leak occurring in a growing subject could lead to severe hypocalcemia and osteoporosis.
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7/10. A hypocalcemic child with a novel activating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor gene: successful treatment with recombinant human parathyroid hormone.

    CONTEXT: Persistent hypercalciuria, with the attendant risk of nephrocalcinosis and eventual renal failure, is common in hypoparathyroid patients, especially those with activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene, being treated with oral calcium and calcitriol. Treatment with replacement PTH may be warranted, although this has yet to be evaluated in children. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the cause of the disorder in a young hypocalcemic patient and to assess the efficacy of treatment of the patient with recombinant human PTH(1-34). SUBJECT: An infant presenting with hypocalcemia at 3 wk of age was studied. methods: CASR gene mutation analysis was performed on genomic dna of the proband and family members. The patient was treated with twice-daily administration of recombinant human PTH(1-34) over a 17-month period. RESULTS: The proband was heterozygous for a de novo novel missense mutation (L727Q), on the border between transmembrane helix 4 and intracellular loop 2 of the CASR. When transiently expressed in a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line, the mutant receptor demonstrated a significant leftward shift in the extracellular calcium/intracellular signaling dose-response curve vs. that for the wild-type receptor [EC(50); mutant, 2.59 /- 0.11 mm (mean /- se) vs. wild-type, 3.78 /- 0.12 mm, P < 0.001]. During treatment with PTH(1-34), the patient had no further serious hypocalcemic episodes, and his urinary calcium excretion declined remarkably. CONCLUSION: PTH should be evaluated further as a treatment of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia in young patients.
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8/10. Use of thiazide diuretics to reduce the hypercalciuria of hypoparathyroidism during pregnancy.

    A pregnant patient with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is presented. Her hypomagnesemic hypocalcemia was unresponsive to conventional therapy, or magnesium supplementation. sodium restriction with thiazide therapy successfully reduced her renal calcium wastage to control her symptoms and raise her serum calcium levels.
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9/10. hypocalcemia complicating deferoxamine therapy in an infant with parenteral nutrition-associated aluminum overload: evidence for a role of aluminum in the bone disease of infants.

    aluminum (Al) contaminates total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions given to infants, and high levels of Al have been demonstrated in their bone, serum, and urine. However, it is uncertain whether Al at current levels of contamination of TPN solutions is harmful to bone. We report an 8-month-old infant who developed osteopenic bone disease while receiving TPN, which did not respond to large amounts of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D2. serum and urine Al levels were greatly elevated and fell after a short course of deferoxamine. However, shortly after treatment began, serum calcium levels fell in the absence of hypercalciuria. We postulate that chelation of Al from this patient's bone permitted increased bone calcium uptake. This would suggest that Al at current levels of contamination of TPN solutions may impair bone calcium uptake and thus contribute to the pathogenesis or exacerbation of TPN-related osteopenia.
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10/10. hypoparathyroidism in Wilson's disease.

    An 11-year-old girl with Wilson's disease presented with mild hypocalcemia (8.0 mg per deciliter), hypophosphatemia (2.7 mg per deciliter), hypercalciuria (569 mg per day), and hyperphosphaturia (tubular reabsorption of phosphate, 67 per cent). The hyperphosphaturia and hypercalciuria were attributed to the fanconi syndrome, a known component of Wilson's disease. Circulating immunoreactive parathyroid hormone was usually undetectable or, occasionally, detectable at minimal levels in the presence of depressed blood levels of ionized calcium. Normal levels of ionized calcium were not maintained throughout a 24-hour monitoring period. The patient had tetany during a period of rapid reduction in ionized calcium levels, and an appropriate rise in circulating immunoreactive parathyroid levels was never demonstrated. Induced hypocalcemia during citrate infusion did not stimulate parathyroid secretion, nor did infusion of magnesium. We conclude that parathyroid insufficiency may be associated with Wilson's disease. We speculate that it is due to deposition of copper in the parathyroid glands.
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