Cases reported "Hypocalcemia"

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1/6. Renal magnesium wasting, hypomagnesemic hypocalcemia, hypocalciuria and osteopenia in a patient with glycogenosis type II.

    We describe a patient with late-onset glycogenosis type II with renal magnesium wasting, hypomagnesemic hypocalcemia, hypocalciuria and osteopenia. He was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of lower limb weakness and mild deterioration of liver function. serum magnesium and calcium were low with low-to-normal levels of PTH in the patient. Echocardiogram revealed marked concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. An x-ray film of his spine showed a thoracic (Th12) vertebral compression fracture. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine L2-L4 showed a reduced value. kidney, liver and muscle biopsies were performed. These were found to have histologic features consistent with glycogenosis type II. In addition, accumulation of PAS-positive material in the cytoplasmic vacuoles of the tubular epithelium was present only in the distal tubules. An oral magnesium supplement was useful in helping to correct the hypomagnesemia, despite the presence of renal magnesium wasting in our patient. magnesium supplement was also sufficient to maintain normal serum calcium concentrations. However, the hypocalciuria persisted in our patient despite correction of hypomagnesemia. In conclusion, the consistent association between the glycogen accumulation in distal tubules, renal magnesium wasting, hypomagnesemic hypocalcemia and hypocalciuria, in the absence of other identifiable reasons, suggests a cause-and-result relationship. Also, the combination of renal magnesium wasting, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria is a picture similar to that of Gitelman's syndrome in our patient. The glycogen accumulation in distal tubules may cause renal magnesium wasting and hypocalciuria through tubular injury. Therefore, we may speculate that the present case has glycogenosis type II-associated Gitelman's-like syndrome.
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2/6. Severe hypomagnesaemia-induced hypocalcaemia in a patient with Gitelman's syndrome.

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is characterized by hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism, hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria and is due to a defect of the Na-Cl cotransporter at the distal tubule, which may appear in a sporadic or in a familial form. It is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with normal or reduced blood pressure. We report a case of severe hypomagnesaemia-induced hypocalcaemia in a 39-year-old Caucasian woman with GS. The patient had impaired parathormone (PTH) responsiveness to peripheral stimuli, as proved by the marked PTH increase and normalization of plasma calcium levels after acute and chronic administration of magnesium salts. Secondary normotensive hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis was also present. Normal plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone levels were restored by administration of an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. The electrolyte imbalance was successfully corrected with chronic treatment with magnesium and potassium salts. Genetic analysis identified a compound heterozygous mutation in the Na-Cl cotransporter gene (NCCT), confirming the diagnosis of GS. The striking feature of this case of GS was impaired PTH responsiveness to peripheral stimuli determined by hypomagnesaemia and the resulting severe hypocalcaemia, which had not previously been described in this syndrome.
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3/6. Renal sodium handling study in an atypical case of Bartter's syndrome associated with mitochondriopathy and sensorineural blindness.

    Bartter's syndrome is a disorder that has been linked to mutations in one of three ion transporter proteins: NKCC2 (type I), ROMK (type II) and CCLNKB (type III), which affects a final common pathway that participates in ion transport by thick ascending limb cells. We present an atypical case of mitochondriopathy combined with tubule functional disturbances compatible with Bartter's syndrome and definitive sensorineural blindness. Our patient had a peculiar clinical presentation with signs of salt and volume depletion, low blood pressure and secondary hyperaldosteronism, associated with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcemia and severe hypomagnesemia, uncommon in genetic forms of Bartter's syndrome. The enhanced absolute and fractional sodium excretion in our patient compared to volunteers was accompanied by increased post-proximal sodium rejection, suggesting a striking ion transport dysfunction in these nephron segments. These findings lead to the Bartter's syndrome diagnosis, accompanied by a suppose mitochondrial tick ascending loop of henle epithelium dysfunction that may reflect the high energy supplied by mitochondria electron transport chain, required for this nephron segment to maintain normal ion transport.
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4/6. A case of gain-of-function mutation in calcium-sensing receptor: supplemental hydration is required for renal protection.

    AIMS: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates the extracellular calcium level, mainly by controlling parathyroid hormon secretion and renal calcium reabsorption. In gain-of-function CaSR mutations, the genetic abnormalities increase CaSR activity leading to the development of such clinical manifestations as hypercalciuric hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. We report a Japanese case of CaSR gain-of-function mutation and represent a therapeutic intervention based on the functional characteristics of CaSR in renal tubule. methods AND RESULTS (CASE): dna sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous G to T mutation identified in a 12-year-old Japanese girl presenting with sporadic onset of hypercalciuric hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. The mutation is located in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the CaSR gene, one of the most important parts for the three-dimensional construction of the receptor, resulting in the substitution of phenylalanine for cysteine at amino acid 131 (C131F) in exon 3. Based on the diagnosis of the gain-of-function mutation in the CaSR, oral hydrochlorothiazide administration and supplemental hydration were started in addition to calcium supplementation. The combination therapy of thiazide and supplemental hydration markedly reduced both renal calcium excretion and urinary calcium concentration from 0.4-0.7 to less than 0.1 mg/mg (urinary calcium/creatinine ratio) and from 10-15 to 3-5 mg/dl (urinary calcium concentration), respectively. This therapy stopped the progression of renal calcification during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Supplemental hydration should be considered essential for the following reasons: (1) calcium supplementation activates the CaSR in the kidney and suppresses renal urinary concentrating ability, (2) the thiazide has a diuretic effect, (3) as calcium supplementation increases renal calcium excretion, the supplemental hydration decreases urinary calcium concentration by increasing urinary volume, thereby diminishing the risk of intratubular crystallization of calcium ion.
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5/6. A rare case of Gitelman's syndrome presenting with hypocalcemia and osteopenia.

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (TSC) at the distal tubule, is characterized by hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal or low blood pressure, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. An 18-yr-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with a history of muscle weakness and transient tetanic episodes. He showed hypocalcemia in addition to hypokalemia, severe hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal blood pressure. Furthermore, bone mineral density at the lumbar spine revealed osteopenia. A diagnosis of GS was made on the basis of clinical features, laboratory data and renal function test. The electrolyte imbalance was corrected and bone mineral density was slightly increased with chronic treatment of magnesium and potassium salts. Genetic analysis revealed that TSC gene of the patient has a heterozygous C to A nucleotide substitution at position 545 in exon 4, which causes a threonine (Thr) to lysine (Lys) substitution at position 180. This is a rare case of GS with hypocalcemia and osteopenia which could be caused by severe hypomagnesemia.
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6/6. Aminoglycoside-associated fanconi syndrome.

    The objective is to describe a case of probable aminoglycoside-induced fanconi syndrome and make clinicians aware of the existence of this underrecognized and underdiagnosed complication in patients treated with a prolonged course of high-dose aminoglycosides. A 53-year-old man admitted for recurrent infective exacerbations of chronic bronchiectasis already colonized with pseudomonas aeruginosa was treated intermittently with intravenous gentamicin (320 to 560 mg/d) for a total of 4 months to a total cumulative dose of 9.4 g. The patient developed profound hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphaturia, and aminoaciduria. Electrolyte disturbances persisted until gentamicin therapy was stopped, recurred with rechallenge, and did not correct with calcium and phosphate supplementation. This case shows that prolonged exposure to high-dose aminoglycoside therapy can be associated with fanconi syndrome, which is a manifestation of proximal tubular dysfunction. There are only a few case reports to date of fanconi syndrome as a probable complication of high-dose aminoglycoside therapy. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction probability scale score indicated that this was a probable adverse reaction associated with administration of high-dose aminoglycosides. The differential diagnosis of electrolyte disturbances as a manifestation of proximal tubule dysfunction and type 2 renal tubular acidosis is vast; however, fanconi syndrome needs to be considered in patients treated with high doses of aminoglycosides for longer than 6 days, after more common causes of hypophosphatemia are excluded.
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