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1/13. Oral ulcerations as the first sign of a foramen magnum meningioma.

    We report the case of a patient with oral ulcerations that were likely traumatic in origin caused by biting of the tongue. physical examination showed only deviation, fasciculations, and hemiatrophy of the right side of the tongue. neurologic examination disclosed an isolated XII nerve palsy. A magnetic resonance image showed a lesion in the posterior fossa displacing the brain stem at a bulbar level. This was consistent with the diagnosis of a meningioma, later confirmed by the histopathologic study. It is very unusual that a meningioma produces a selective involvement of the XII nerve. early diagnosis of a foramen magnum meningioma is important, both to improve prognosis and to avoid neurologic sequelae.
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2/13. Simultaneous vocal fold and tongue paresis secondary to Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    dysphonia is a common presenting symptom in cases referred for otolaryngologic evaluation. Similarly, primary care physicians frequently see adolescents or young adults with symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Some of the patients with active Epstein-Barr virus infection who have severe clinical manifestations of infectious mononucleosis will be referred for otolaryngologic evaluation. voice abnormalities in these patients, though, are usually limited to altered resonance due to pharyngeal crowding by hyperplastic lymphoid tissue. We describe a patient with infectious mononucleosis who was referred for evaluation of dysphonia and was diagnosed with unilateral tongue and vocal fold paresis. We also discuss the patient's clinical course and review the related literature. Although uncommon, cranial nerve palsies must be considered in the patient with Epstein-Barr virus infection who presents with voice or speech disturbance. Arch Otolaryngol Head neck Surg. 2000;126:1491-1494
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3/13. A multifocal neurinoma of the hypoglossal nerve with motor paralysis confirmed by electromyography.

    A rare case of neurinoma in a 72 year-old Japanese woman derived from the hypoglossal nerve is reported. The tumour was composed of three interconnected nodules occurring simultaneously in the left submandibular and sublingual regions. The lesion, which presented as a neck mass, caused a slight left-sided hemiparesis of the tongue with tongue deviation to the affected side not noticed by the patient. An electromyographic (EMG) study revealed decreased muscle activity on the left side of the tongue muscle, indicating dysfunction of the hypoglossal nerve. EMG was useful for diagnosis.
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4/13. dysarthria as the isolated clinical symptom of borreliosis--a case report.

    This report presents a case of dysarthria due to hypoglossal nerve mono-neuropathy as the only consequence of neuroborreliosis. The 65-year-old man with a seven-months history of articulation disturbances was examined. The speech of the patient was slow and laboured. A slight weakness of the muscles of the tongue (left-side) was observed. The patient suffered from meningitis due to borrelia burgdorferi infection in 1999 and initially underwent a successful antibiotic treatment. Detailed radiological investigation and psychological tests were performed and co-existing neurological diseases were excluded. To describe profile of speech abnormalities the dysarthria scale was designed based on S. J. Robertson dysarthria Profile. There were a few disturbances found in self-assessment of speech, intelligibility, articulation, and prosody but especially in the morphology of the articulation muscles, diadochokinesis, the reflexes (in the mouth, larynx and pharynx). Needle EMG examination confirmed the diagnosis of mono-neuropathy of left hypoglossal nerve. The study confirms the fact that neuroborreliosis may evoke chronic consequences.
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5/13. Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to internal carotid artery dissection.

    A case of an isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is reported. The differential diagnosis is discussed, in the context of the requirement for careful scrutiny of the entire course of the hypoglossal nerve on imaging, to detect underlying pathology remote from the tongue, and to avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures prompted by the appearance of a 'pseudomass' of the weak tongue both clinically and radiologically.
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6/13. hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports.

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involvement of the cervical spine is a well-known but perhaps underappreciated phenomenon. Neurologic complications of this involvement include pain, myelopathy, and cranial nerve (CN) palsies. However, hypoglossal nerve palsy (CN XII) is rarely diagnosed. Mechanical nerve injury, either from vertical odontoid subluxation or pannus formation, is the suspected mechanism. We present 2 cases of hypoglossal nerve palsy attributed to cervical spine involvement of RA and 1 case of postoperative tongue weakness after cervical fusion in a patient with long-standing RA. These cases show a potentially devastating complication of RA that may be underdiagnosed. Therapy involving the cervical spine must be prescribed with caution in this patient population.
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7/13. Occipital neuralgia and twelfth nerve palsy from a chondromyxoid fibroma.

    The purpose of this case report is to record the unusual combination of occipital neuralgia and hypoglossal nerve palsy causing dysarthria, dysphagia, and unilateral weakness of tongue protrusion, with no other neurological findings. The cause was a discrete tumor in the clivus and the right occipital condyle. Following surgical resection of the tumor, dysarthria and dysphagia persisted. These improved with therapy by a speech therapist, but deviation of the tongue persisted on protrusion. No similar case reports were found in the literature. In addition, the tumor was an unusual one, a chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF); these tumors uncommonly involve the skull base.
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8/13. Asymmetric tongue muscle uptake of F-18 FDG: possible marker for cranial nerve XII paralysis.

    A 58-year-old woman, with nonsmall cell carcinoma, had multiple metastasis on 2-F-18 FDG positron emission tomography imaging. The right hemitongue had increased activity as compared with the left. This was not the result of the presence of a metastasis to the tongue, as shown by a negative computed tomography scan of the region and failure to demonstrate a lesion over a period of weeks. Uptake was likely related to right hemiglossal muscle activity. This was made more apparent by decreased uptake on the opposite side of the tongue (up to the midline) as a result of left cranial nerve XII paralysis.
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9/13. Unilateral compression neuropathy of the hypoglossal nerve due to head suspension orthosis in mitochondriopathy.

    An 85-year-old woman with multisystem mitochondriopathy experienced tension headache, cervical pain, torque head-posture, and vertigo since 1980 for which she was continuously wearing a head-suspension-orthosis- since 1990. Since 1996 she developed severe left-sided weakness and wasting of the tongue. Needle-EMG of the left genioglossus muscle revealed abnormal spontaneous activity and reduced interference-pattern. No morphological alterations in the anatomical course of the hypoglossal nerve were found. Severe, unilateral weakness and wasting of the tongue was interpreted due to chronic compression of the hypoglossal nerve by long-standing use of a head-suspension-orthosis for cervical pain from cervical muscle weakness and resulting spinal degeneration.
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10/13. drainage of retro-parapharyngeal abscess: an additional indication for endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Deep neck abscesses are life-threatening conditions, in early stages preferably treated by intravenous antibiotic therapy; in advanced stages, surgical drainage is mandatory. We report two cases of retro-parapharyngeal abscess with prevalent retronasopharyngeal extension in two men aged 60 and 82, both of whom underwent transnasal endoscopic drainage. The main surgical steps were incision of the posterior pharyngeal mucosal wall, widening of the incision, drainage of purulent collection and careful dissection and removal of the necrotic tissue. The first patient, with an abscess associated with chronic otitis media and presenting hypoglossal nerve palsy, quickly recovered from pharyngodinia, otalgia and trismus. Twenty-six months after surgery, he is symptom-free, with hemitongue atrophy due to denervation as the only residual sign. The second patient, affected by skull base osteomyelitis secondary to malignant external otitis, after a first successful drainage, underwent a second endoscopic procedure for the reoccurrence of an abscess in the contralateral retroparapharyngeal space. Twelve months after the first surgery, the patient reported an improvement of symptoms, except for persistent dysphonia related to vagal nerve palsy. At follow-up MR, another abscess was detected in the left retro-parapharyngeal space. In selected cases of abscess, transnasal endoscopic drainage may be an effective alternative to external approaches. Minimal morbidity, the absence of cervical or palatal scars and a short hospitalization time can be considered as important advantages in comparison to external approaches. patients with abscess secondary to skull base osteomyelitis require close imaging surveillance because of the difficulty of definitive control of the disease.
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