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1/51. Jefferson fracture resulting in Collet-Sicard syndrome.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report and review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of and add to the spectrum of injury that can result from Jefferson fractures, to suggest a possible mechanism of injury, and to give a brief review of pertinent facts regarding C1 burst fractures and the Collet-Sicard syndrome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of a Jefferson fracture resulting in Collet-Sicard syndrome. It represents only the second reported case of cranial nerve palsy caused by Jefferson fracture. methods: A 56-year-old man sustained a C1 burst fracture in a rollover motor vehicle accident. Repeated neurologic examinations over the ensuing days revealed lesions of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII on the left side. RESULTS: Two weeks of traction, 10 weeks in a halo vest, and 2 weeks in a cervical collar resulted in adequate fracture healing and almost complete resolution of the patient's neurologic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Although this is the first reported case of Collet-Sicard syndrome caused by Jefferson fracture, the authors' review of the literature suggests that cranial nerve injuries may go unrecognized in some patients with C1 burst fractures. The importance of a thorough neurologic examination, including examination of the cranial nerves, in all cases of cervical spine injury cannot be overemphasized. ( info)

2/51. adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with initial deafness.

    In July 1995, a 43-year-old Japanese man presented with deafness in the right ear. On hospital admission, he had deafness in both ears and right facial palsy. Variously sized lymphoid cells with convoluted nuclei were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Surface marker analysis revealed monoclonality of T lymphocytes in the spinal fluid. Similar abnormal cells were observed in peripheral blood and bone marrow. biopsy specimens of the stomach and prostate showed tight proliferation of large lymphoid cells in the interstitium and epithelium. Antibody against human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was present. The diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, diffuse type, was made. Seven months later, the patient died of sepsis. autopsy revealed multiple lymphadenopathy in the abdomen and the infiltration of atypical lymphocytes to the pancreas, kidneys, and other organs. A monoclonal band of HTLV-1 provirus was detected by Southern blot analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with auditory nerve abnormalities as the initial symptom. ( info)

3/51. Osteosarcomatosis involving craniofacial bones presenting with cranial nerve palsies.

    Osteosarcomatosis (also known as multifocal osteosarcoma or multiple sclerotic osteosarcoma) is a rare condition, characterized by multiple skeletal lesions at initial presentation. We describe a case of osteosarcomatosis involving craniofacial bones presenting with cranial nerve palsies. In addition, a brief review of the literature is given, with a discussion of this highly aggressive form of osteosarcoma. ( info)

4/51. Cranial neuropathy following curative chemotherapy and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

    Cranial nerve damage following head and neck radiotherapy is an unusual event. Cranial neuropathy following concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is unreported. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man treated with curative chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a stage III nasopharyngeal carcinoma who developed an unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy five years after therapy. Follow-up examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show no evidence of recurrent disease. hypoglossal nerve injury occurring after head and neck radiotherapy is an indirect effect due to progressive soft tissue fibrosis and loss of vascularity. This process develops over years leading to nerve entrapment and permanent damage. Cranial nerve palsies, including damage to the hypoglossal nerve, can develop years after therapy with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved progression-free and overall survival in advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. As more patients achieve long-term tumour control following chemotherapy and radiotherapy, we must be cognizant of potential late injury to cranial nerves. ( info)

5/51. Isolated, unilateral, reversible palsy of the hypoglossal nerve.

    We report three patients with isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy who experienced an excellent outcome. In two patients no cause was found. Our study seems to confirm that the occurrence of benign and idiopathic isolated unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is more frequent than previously reported. We would like to stress that neuroimaging studies remain mandatory in order to exclude other common causes, such as tumour and spontaneous or traumatic vascular lesions, in which a specific treatment is necessary. ( info)

6/51. Hypoglossal neurinoma--two case reports.

    Two patients presented with hypoglossal neurinoma extending both intra- and extracranially. A 63-year-old male presented with right trigeminal neuralgia and hypoglossal nerve paresis. The intracranial part of the tumor was removed totally via a suboccipital craniectomy. Over-coagulation of the venous collaterals, particularly the emissary veins, resulted in dural venous sinus thrombosis and cerebellar infarction. Unfortunately this patient died. A 48-year-old male presented with pareses of the VII, IX, X, XI, and XII cranial nerves and cerebellar sign. The tumor extended both extra- and intracranially, and was completely removed by opening the hypoglossal canal and the jugular foramen without over-coagulation of the venous collaterals. Preservation of the venous collaterals is very important for the prevention of postoperative venous complications. ( info)

7/51. Oral ulcerations as the first sign of a foramen magnum meningioma.

    We report the case of a patient with oral ulcerations that were likely traumatic in origin caused by biting of the tongue. physical examination showed only deviation, fasciculations, and hemiatrophy of the right side of the tongue. neurologic examination disclosed an isolated XII nerve palsy. A magnetic resonance image showed a lesion in the posterior fossa displacing the brain stem at a bulbar level. This was consistent with the diagnosis of a meningioma, later confirmed by the histopathologic study. It is very unusual that a meningioma produces a selective involvement of the XII nerve. early diagnosis of a foramen magnum meningioma is important, both to improve prognosis and to avoid neurologic sequelae. ( info)

8/51. Simultaneous vocal fold and tongue paresis secondary to Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    dysphonia is a common presenting symptom in cases referred for otolaryngologic evaluation. Similarly, primary care physicians frequently see adolescents or young adults with symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Some of the patients with active Epstein-Barr virus infection who have severe clinical manifestations of infectious mononucleosis will be referred for otolaryngologic evaluation. voice abnormalities in these patients, though, are usually limited to altered resonance due to pharyngeal crowding by hyperplastic lymphoid tissue. We describe a patient with infectious mononucleosis who was referred for evaluation of dysphonia and was diagnosed with unilateral tongue and vocal fold paresis. We also discuss the patient's clinical course and review the related literature. Although uncommon, cranial nerve palsies must be considered in the patient with Epstein-Barr virus infection who presents with voice or speech disturbance. Arch Otolaryngol head neck Surg. 2000;126:1491-1494 ( info)

9/51. Spontaneous bilateral internal carotid artery dissection with hypoglossal nerve palsy.

    Spontaneous dissection of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is increasingly being recognized as a common vascular disease. We report on a 52-year-old-male presented with bilateral extracranial internal artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy and review the previous literature. ( info)

10/51. A multifocal neurinoma of the hypoglossal nerve with motor paralysis confirmed by electromyography.

    A rare case of neurinoma in a 72 year-old Japanese woman derived from the hypoglossal nerve is reported. The tumour was composed of three interconnected nodules occurring simultaneously in the left submandibular and sublingual regions. The lesion, which presented as a neck mass, caused a slight left-sided hemiparesis of the tongue with tongue deviation to the affected side not noticed by the patient. An electromyographic (EMG) study revealed decreased muscle activity on the left side of the tongue muscle, indicating dysfunction of the hypoglossal nerve. EMG was useful for diagnosis. ( info)
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