Cases reported "Hypoglycemia"

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11/68. Continuous infusion of glucagon induces severe hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia in a premature neonate.

    We report on a 35-week gestation infant who developed severe hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia after continuous infusion of glucagon for the treatment of intractable hypoglycemia. Given these serious side effects,glucagon infusion should be avoided in the treatment of premature infants.hypoglycemia, glucose, small for gestational age. hypoglycemia is commonly seen in premature infants, and the provision of a standard glucose intake is often not sufficient to maintain euglycemia. For these infants, an increase in glucose infusion to provide 4 to 8 mg/kg/min is initially recommended.1 Should this approach fail, pharmacologic agents such as corticosteroids or diazoxide are indicated.1 When the serum glucose in premature or small for gestational age infants cannot be adequately maintained, a glucagon infusion is now suggested as the best treatment approach.2,3 We report the use of glucagon infusion for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in a premature infant. A severe hyponatremia associated with transient convulsions and thrombocytopenia was observed in the neonate after treatment. Discontinuation of the glucagon infusion resulted in prompt resolution of these abnormalities.
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12/68. Severe hypoglycemia due to insulin autoimmune syndrome with insulin autoantibodies crossreactive to proinsulin.

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with insulin autoimmune syndrome first misdiagnosed as insulinoma. The case demonstrates the difficulties to correctly diagnose this rare disorder as both insulin and proinsulin levels were increased by crossreactive autoantibodies. No known triggering agent could be identified. We suggest that this diagnosis should be considered more often also in caucasian patients to avoid useless operations for such patients.
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13/68. A rare cause of syncope in a patient with diabetes mellitus--a case report.

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with diabetes mellitus are mostly due to excess doses of exogenous insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents, coupled with poor caloric intake and excessive unplanned physical exertion. Hypoglycaemia as a result of endogenous hyperinsulinaemia due to an insulinoma is extremely rare in such patients. CLINICAL PICTURE: This patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with episodes of syncope. Investigations confirmed recurrent hypoglycaemia from endogenous hyperinsulinaemia, with localisation of a tumour in the tail of the pancreas. TREATMENT: Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. histology confirmed an insulinoma. OUTCOME: No further hypoglycaemic episodes were noted. The patient returned to his diabetic state with rather poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated hypoglycaemic episodes in a patient with diabetes mellitus despite complete withdrawal of hypoglycaemic agents should lead one to consider other causes of hypoglycaemia.
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14/68. Important causes of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes on peritoneal dialysis.

    AIM: Diabetes is now the commonest cause of end-stage renal failure, so there are many diabetic patients receiving dialysis therapy. There are several important ways in which dialysis practice can impinge unfavourably on glucose control. This study focuses on the interaction between maltose-derived metabolites in a new peritoneal dialysis fluid and blood glucose measurements using reagent sticks that depend on the glucose dehydrogenase method. CASE REPORT: We report the cases of three patients, with insulin-treated diabetes and end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis, who experienced symptomatic hypoglycaemia with inaccurate glucose readings on reagent strips when converted to icodextrin. CONCLUSION: Careful teamwork between diabetes and renal physicians and specialist nurses is highly desirable to achieve good glucose control in a group of patients at particular risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications.
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15/68. sertraline-induced hypoglycemia.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of hypoglycemia that occurred in a patient treated with the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, sertraline. CASE SUMMARY: An 82-year-old white woman with mild cardiovascular disease and no history of glucose intolerance was seen in the emergency department for a presyncopal episode associated with a blood glucose of 32 mg/dL as measured by the ambulance attendant. She had similar symptoms the day before. Despite repeated administration of oral and intravenous glucose, the patient had recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and was hospitalized for four days. She had started taking sertraline 50 mg once daily for mild depression 25 days prior to presentation. Other medications included furosemide 20 mg/d, ramipril 5 mg/d, clopidogrel 75 mg/d, nitroglycerin patch 0.4 mg/h, and lorazepam 1 mg taken occasionally for agitation. She had never been prescribed any oral hypoglycemic agents. serum sertraline and desmethylsertraline concentrations measured two, three, and four days after discontinuing sertraline were within the expected range, but the rate of decline was consistent with a moderately prolonged half-life. DISCUSSiON: sertraline has been shown to blunt postprandial hyperglycemia in rats and to potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylurea agents in humans. It has not been reported to cause hypoglycemia independently, but in this case, a nondiabetic patient experienced multiple episodes of hypoglycemia that resolved after discontinuation of sertraline. CONCLUSIONS: This report and another implicating fluoxetine in a case of hypoglycemia suggest that healthcare professionals should consider these medications among the possible causes of hypoglycemia occurring in patients receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.
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16/68. Severe hypoglycemia in an elderly patient treated with metformin.

    The following case of severe hypoglycemia was reported during a systematic evaluation of hospital admissions caused by adverse drug reactions (supported by BfArM). history AND FINDINGS ON ADMISSION: A 79-year-old diabetic woman was admitted to hospital in a stuporous and unresponsive state. The initial physical examination revealed no other abnormal findings. serum blood glucose was found to be 2.0 mmol/l and HbA1c was 4.6%. The patient had been started on antidiabetic therapy with metformin 2 months earlier. Treatment with other drugs being taken at that time, an ACE inhibitor, an NSAID and nitrofurantoin, remained unchanged. diagnosis, TREATMENT AND FOLLOW-UP: Laboratory tests excluded lactic acidosis and renal insufficiency. Cerebral computed tomography findings were normal. The patient improved dramatically following administration of glucose. Other laboratory findings confirmed the diagnosis of hypoglycemia. blood glucose concentrations ranged between 4.0 and 10.0 mmol/l in the subsequent days and the patient could be discharged in full health. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-induced hypoglycemia is possible even in diabetics not receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents increasing insulin secretion. The risk of drug-induced hypoglycemia should be particularly considered when drugs containing blood glucose-lowering components are combined. metformin does not usually cause hypoglycemia when administered as monotherapy. We suspected that hypoglycemia in this patient was caused by additional blood glucose-lowering effects of the ACE inhibitor and the NSAID possibly combined with a suboptimal nutrition. The indications for metformin administration undergo critical scrutiny.
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17/68. Drug-induced hypoglycemia presenting as acute mountain sickness, after mistaking acetohexamide for acetazolamide.

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) can present with a wide variety of symptoms in unacclimatized persons who rapidly ascend to altitudes > 2500 m. The clinical manifestations of drug-induced hypoglycemia, including adrenergic and neurologic symptoms, have significant overlap with the AMS symptom complex. These similarities can lead to confusion in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia versus AMS, particularly for diabetics ascending to altitude. A case is described in which the oral hypoglycemic agent acetohexamide, instead of acetazolamide, was mistakenly self-administered for the prophylaxis and treatment of altitude illness. Improper self-medication by travelers in remote areas may be more common than is currently recognized.
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18/68. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy--successful therapy with nifedipine.

    Recent studies have demonstrated a role for calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. We report a 30 day old infant with PHHI whom we successfully treated with oral nifedipine alone.
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19/68. Uncontrolled insulin secretion from a childhood pancreatic beta-cell adenoma is not due to the functional loss of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    We report the case of an 8-year-old child who presented with severe hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia due to a pancreatic islet cell adenoma. In vivo, there was no beneficial response to the hyperglycaemia-inducing agent diazoxide and as a consequence the child underwent a subtotal pancreatectomy. in vitro studies of adenomatous beta-cells revealed no operational defects in ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity and appropriate responses to diazoxide. In comparison with patients with focal adenomatous hyperplasia, genetic analysis of the isolated adenoma showed no loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 11p15 and expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(kip2). This case illustrates that the excess insulin secretion from an infantile adenoma has an aetiology different from that observed in hyperinsulinism in infancy.
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20/68. hypoglycemia probably due to accidental intake of repaglinide.

    This report focuses on a 16-year-old girl afflicted with hypoglycemia after administration of medications for gastrointestinal symptoms. Repaglinide-induced hypoglycemia was suspected when a tablet of repaglinide was noted in the drug package that she had been given. As the use of various types of oral hypoglycemic agents has increased, a definitive diagnosis of drug-induced hypoglycemia has become difficult. It is dangerous for a patient to take oral hypoglycemic agents without the knowledge of hypoglycemic symptoms and initial management. We present this case and review the characteristics of repaglinide to remind physicians and pharmacists to pay more attention to this situation.
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