Cases reported "Hypogonadism"

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1/56. A microdeletion within DAX-1 in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a developmental disorder characterized by primary adrenal gland failure, which produces extreme and potentially fatal endocrine deficiencies. Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HHG) also may be associated with AHC. AHC has been shown to result from a variety of mutations in the DAX-1 gene, which encodes a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. methods: The proband, one of the world's oldest living patients with AHC and HHG, was diagnosed in 1955. He was on corticosteroid replacement therapy since that time and androgen replacement therapy since puberty. We sequenced his DAX-1 gene. RESULTS: We found a 4 bp ACTC deletion between nucleotides 1464 and 1467 in the second exon of the normal DAX-1 sequence. This mutation caused a shift in the reading frame and predicted a premature stop codon at amino acid position 416. The mutation abolished a recognition site for DdeI, allowing for confirmation by restriction analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The position of the mutation confirms the functional importance of the COOH-terminal 10% of the DAX-1 sequence. The clinical history also reinforces the importance of early diagnosis in AHC, which can be associated with longevity and no obvious morbidity after more than 40 years of hormone replacement therapy.
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2/56. Combined hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal defect in a hypogonadic man with a novel mutation in the DAX-1 gene.

    We have studied a 20-yr-old male patient with adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) due to a C to A transversion at nucleotide 825 in the DAX-1 gene, resulting in a stop codon at position 197. The same mutation was detected in his affected first cousin (adrenal hypoplasia congenita and HH) and in a heterozygous state in their carrier mothers. The patient had had acute adrenal insufficiency at the age of 2 yr and 6 months, bilateral cryptorchidism corrected surgically at the age of 12 yr, and failure of spontaneous puberty. plasma testostereone (T) was undetectable (<0.30 nmol/L), gonadotropin levels were low (LH, <0.4 IU/L; FSH, 1.5 IU/L) and not stimulated after i.v. injection of 100 microg GnRH. The endogenous LH secretory pattern was apulsatile, whereas free alpha-subunit (FAS) levels depicted erratic pulses, suggesting an incomplete deficiency of hypothalamic GnRH secretion. During i.v. pulsatile GnRH administration (10 microg/pulse every 90 min for 40 h), each GnRH pulse induced a LH response of low amplitude (0.54 /- 0.05 UI/L), whereas mean LH (0.45 /- 0.01 IU/L) and FAS (63 /- 8 mU/L) levels remained low. Amplitude of LH peaks (0.83 /- 0.09 IU/L), mean LH (0.53 /- 0.02 IU/L), and FAS (161 /- 18 mU/L) levels increased (P < 0.01), whereas the T concentration remained low (0.75 nmol/L) when the pulsatile GnRH regimen was raised to 20 microg/pulse for a 40-h period, suggesting a partial pituitary resistance to GnRH. Thereafter, plasma T levels remained in prepubertal value after three daily im injections of 5000 IU hCG (3.6 nmol/L) and after 1-yr treatment with weekly i.m. injections of 1500 IU hCG (1.2 nmol/L), implying Leydig cell resistance to hCG. The patient had a growth spurt, bone maturation, progression of genital and pubic hair stages, and normalization of plasma T level (15.8 nmol/L) after a 12-month treatment with twice weekly injections of hCG and human menopausal gonadotropin (75 IU International Reference Preparation 2) preparations, suggesting that, in presence of FSH, a Sertoli cell-secreted factor stimulated Leydig cell production of T. In conclusion, we report a novel mutation in the DAX-1 gene in patients with AHC and HH. Our results suggest that the hypogonadism is due to a combined hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal defect and imply that the DAX-1 gene may play a critical role in human testicular function.
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3/56. IMAGe, a new clinical association of intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies.

    We report three boys with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and additional findings that represent a new syndrome, IMAGe: Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia, AHC, and Genital anomalies. Each presented shortly after birth with growth retardation and severe adrenal insufficiency. Each of the three patients had mild dysmorphic features, bilateral cryptorchidism, a small penis, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Skeletal surveys revealed metaphyseal dysplasia in all three and epiphyseal dysplasia in two. The patients had documented or suspected hypercalciuria and/or hypercalcemia, resulting in nephrocalcinosis in one and in prenatal liver and spleen calcifications in another. AHC presents most often either as an isolated abnormality, caused by mutations in the DAX1 gene, or as part of an Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome, caused by a deletion of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, glycerol kinase, and DAX1 genes. All three patients with the IMAGe association had normal creatine kinase levels and no evidence of glycerol kinase deficiency. sequence analysis of dna from these patients revealed no mutation in the DAX1- or steroidogenic factor-1-coding sequences, nor was a deletion of DAX1 detected. Identification of the molecular basis of the IMAGe association will give new insight into the pathogenesis of this syndromic relationship involving bone, adrenal cortical, and pituitary development.
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4/56. A novel mutation in DAX1 causes delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency and incomplete hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Mutations in the DAX1 gene cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). In affected boys, primary adrenal insufficiency occurs soon after birth or during early childhood; HHG is recognized at the expected time of puberty. In this report, we describe the novel phenotype of a man who presented with apparently isolated adrenal insufficiency at 28 years of age. Examination revealed partial pubertal development and undiagnosed incomplete HHG. Gonadotropin therapy did not improve his marked oligospermia, suggesting a concomitant primary testicular abnormality. Genomic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, I439S, in DAX1. The mutant DAX-1 protein was studied for its ability to function as a transcriptional repressor of target genes. Consistent with the patient's mild clinical phenotype, the I439S mutation conferred intermediate levels of repressor activity of DAX-1 when compared with mutations associated with classic AHC. This unique case extends the clinical spectrum of AHC to include delayed-onset primary adrenal insufficiency in adulthood and milder forms of HHG. Furthermore, in accordance with findings in Ahch (Dax1) knockout mice, the clinical features in this patient suggest that DAX-1 function is required for spermatogenesis in humans, independent of its known effects on gonadotropin production.
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5/56. Presymptomatic diagnosis of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita by analysis of DAX1.

    A novel DAX1 mutation (L381H) was discovered in the asymptomatic 8-month-old brother of a boy with primary adrenal failure. The infant had impaired adrenal reserve despite normal basal adrenal steroid concentrations. This case highlights the value of genetic testing in children at risk of the development of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita before the onset of a potentially life-threatening adrenal crisis.
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6/56. Deletion of the long arm of the y chromosome in an adolescent with short stature and hypogonadism.

    We describe a patient with short stature more than that expected for non-treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to nonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency with deletions in the long arm of the y chromosome including the CGY gene and the AZF subregions.
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7/56. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a presenting feature of late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita.

    Mutations in the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. Affected boys usually present with primary adrenal failure in early infancy or childhood. Impaired sexual development because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism becomes apparent at the time of puberty. We report adult-onset adrenal hypoplasia congenita in a patient who presented with hypogonadism at 28 yr of age. Although he had no clinical evidence of adrenal dysfunction, compensated primary adrenal failure was diagnosed by biochemical testing. semen analysis showed azoospermia, and he did not achieve fertility after 8 months of treatment with gonadotropins. A novel Y380D DAX-1 missense mutation, which causes partial loss of function in transient gene expression assays, was found in this patient. This case demonstrates that partial loss-of-function mutations in DAX1 can present with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and covert adrenal failure in adulthood. Further, an important role for DAX-1 in spermatogenesis in humans is confirmed, supporting findings in the Dax1 (Ahch) knockout mouse.
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8/56. Gonadotropin-secreting pituitary tumor associated with hypersecretion of testosterone and hypogonadism after hypophysectomy.

    OBJECTIVE: To review gonadotropin-secreting pituitary tumors and report the rare case of one of these tumors that caused high serum testosterone concentrations, followed by hypogonadism after hypophysectomy. methods: A case report is presented of a 61-year-old man who had decreased vision in his left eye, found by computed tomography of the sella to be attributable to a soft tissue pituitary mass with upward extension that caused elevation and deviation of the optic chiasm. Endocrine and pathologic evaluations are presented, and the treatment and follow-up course are discussed. RESULTS: Endocrine evaluation revealed a serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) of 72.48 mIU/mL, luteinizing hormone (LH) of 31.65 mIU/mL, prolactin of 26.42 ng/mL, and total testosterone of 15.24 ng/mL (all values higher than the normal ranges). A soft tissue mass (3.2 by 2.5 by 1.2 cm) with negative immunocytochemical staining for prolactin and growth hormone but positive staining for synaptophysin, FSH, and LH was removed. One month postoperatively, the patient's chief complaints were a decrease in penile size and erectile dysfunction. Endocrine evaluation revealed a decreased LH of <0.3 mIU/mL, total testosterone of <0.2 ng/mL, and FSH of 4.3 mIU/mL. Three months later with testosterone replacement therapy, testosterone levels normalized, LH was <0.3 mIU/mL, and FSH was 3.9 mIU/mL. Thyroid function and adrenal function were normal before and after surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: This rare case indicates that gonadotropin tumors can produce a functional LH that can increase serum testosterone levels.
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9/56. Progressive onset of adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism of pituitary origin caused by a complex genetic rearrangement within DAX-1.

    DAX-1 [dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenital (AHC) critical region on the x chromosome, gene 1] is a transcription factor expressed in the adrenal gland and at all levels of the gonadotrope axis. Inactivating mutations of DAX1 result in the X-linked form of AHC with associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. AHC usually reveals itself as adrenal failure in early infancy, although a wide range of phenotypic expression has been reported. We describe a patient who was diagnosed with adrenal failure at 6 wk of age, but who experienced recovery of adrenal function of several months' duration later in infancy. He subsequently failed to undergo puberty because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of pituitary origin, and he was also diagnosed with schizophrenia in early adulthood. Molecular genetic analyses revealed a complex rearrangement in DAX1, including a 2.2-kb deletion spanning the entire second exon and a small 27-bp insertion. The putative protein encoded by this mutated gene is 429 amino acids long. The initial 389 residues probably correspond to the wild-type DAX-1 sequence, whereas the last 40 amino acids are presumably completely unrelated, being transcribed from the intronic sequence adjacent to exon 1. in vitro functional analyses confirm the absence of repressor activity exerted by such mutant protein. These studies expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of DAX-1 insufficiency in humans.
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10/56. A case of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A 27-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with facial erythema and general malaise. He had previously suffered from orbital myositis, central diabetes insipidus (DI), peripheral neuritis, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Physical and immunological examinations revealed that he was suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary region demonstrated a significant enlargement of the pituitary stalk and posterior pituitary. Endocrinological examinations showed that he had not only DI and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism but also hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism, which were ascribed to the pituitary stalk lesion. Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis associated with SLE was diagnosed. Administration of 30 mg/day of prednisolone for one month resulted in a marked reduction of the pituitary stalk thickening and posterior pituitary. It is recommended that a pharmacological dose of glucocorticoid be used in the treatment of lymphocytic hypophysitis patients who show significant thickening of the pituitary stalk and/or a large pituitary mass.
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