Cases reported "Hypogonadism"

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1/15. pregnancy associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

    A case of a 30-year-old female with secondary amenorrhea and relative hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is presented. The patient demonstrated persistently elevated levels of gonadotropins in spite of clinical and laboratory evidence of estrogen production. Laparoscopic directed biopsy revealed a total absence of ova, but in spite of this finding, conception ensued. Variations in ovarian sensitivity throughout the female reproductive period and in certain pathologic states are discussed, as well as the apparent limitation of single laparoscopic directed biopsies for confirming the diagnosis of premature menopause. Finally, the theoretical use of exogenous estrogen to induce ovulation in patients with the ovarian insensitivity syndrome is discussed.
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keywords = ovulation
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2/15. Twin pregnancy using recombinant gonadotropins in a woman with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    In women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are required to induce optimal follicular growth and steroidogenesis. The development of molecular genetic technology has led to the availability of recombinant FSH and LH for the induction of follicular growth and ovulation. We describe a first case of a twin pregnancy in a 36-year-old patient presenting with primary hypogonadotropic amenorrhea and empty sella syndrome and treated with recombinant FSH and LH. This therapy led to the maturation of two follicles, both of which were fertilized. A twin pregnancy ensued and two normal infants were delivered.
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keywords = ovulation
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3/15. pregnancy after administration of high dose recombinant human LH alone to support final stages of follicular maturation in a woman with long-standing hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Traditionally, the roles of LH in folliculogenesis have been considered to be limited to stimulating theca cells androgen production, triggering ovulation and supporting the corpus luteum. However, in the late stages of follicle development, granulosa cells become receptive to LH stimulation and LH becomes capable of exerting its actions on both theca cells and granulosa cells. Thus, it has been postulated that once an appropriate (i.e. LH-responsive) stage of follicular development has been achieved in response to treatment with FSH, there are theoretical grounds for reducing or completely withdrawing FSH and maintaining tonic stimulation of the dominant follicle with exogenous LH. This hypothesis was tested in a woman with long-standing hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, which is the best and only true model to investigate correctly any LH hypothesis. ovulation induction treatment was carried out with daily s.c. injections of 150 IU recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) (increased to 225 IU daily on stimulation day 15) and 375 IU recombinant human LH (rhLH). When a 14-mm follicle was identified on stimulation day 26, rhFSH was discontinued and from treatment days 26 to 29 the patient was given only rhLH at the above-mentioned dose of 375 IU/day. On treatment day 30, the single dominant follicle measured 22 mm in diameter and oestradiol serum concentration was 148 pg/ml. Thus, an injection of 10,000 IU i.m. human chorionic gonadotrophin was given and sexual intercourse was advised. The patient conceived and a viable singleton intrauterine pregnancy was obtained.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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4/15. pregnancy and delivery after stimulation with rFSH of a galatosemia patient suffering hypergonadotropic hypogonadism: case report.

    PURPOSE: To determine if hypergonadotropic hypogonadism related to galactosemia could be linked to anomaly of the circulating FSH. A 26-year-old woman, suffering GALT (Galactoso-1-phosphate uridyltransferase) had a premature ovarian failure with amenorrhea since the age of 19. The circulating level for FSH was 83 and 34 mU/mL for LH. methods: After treatment with a hormonal substitution cycle including estradiol and progesterone, the patient underwent stimulations with recombinant FSH. The first cycle, one 16-mm diameter follicle and the second cycle one follicle of 17.5 mm of diameter were obtained at the time of ovulation induction. RESULTS: The patient conceived and delivered a female baby weighting 3.38 kg after the second stimulation protocol. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of galactosemia on the ovary seems rather related to the absence of recognition of circulating FSH by its receptor and not to a toxic alteration of the ovary by itself as it is currently reported. The rFSH treatment following hormonal substitution cycles allows to overcome infertility problems.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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5/15. Combined growth hormone and gonadotropin treatment for ovulation induction in patients with non-responsive ovaries.

    Four anovulatory patients who did not respond to large doses of hMG over 18-33 days were co-treated in subsequent cycles with human growth hormone. Treatment with growth hormone markedly raised serum insulin-like growth factor concentrations. Two patients had a dramatic ovarian response within 7 days of co-treatment; two menopausal patients did not respond. This combined therapy may be of practical value for ovulation induction in non-menopausal patients with non-responsive ovaries.
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ranking = 5
keywords = ovulation
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6/15. Suprahypophyseal dysfunction in a patient with asexual ateleiosis.

    The neuroendocrine function of a 19 years old female dwarf with primary amenorrhoea and lack of sexual development (asexual ateleiosis) was studied. Undetectable fasting plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) and a lack of response to three different provocative stimuli was observed. Oestrogen administratin did not modify the GH response. Thyroid and adrenal function were within normal limits. Undetectable plasma levels of immunoreactive oestradiol and lack of oestrogenic activity in vaginal smears indicated absence of ovarian function. Low levels of circulating gonadotrophins with a significant rise after synthetic LH-RH administration was demonstrated, while clomiphene citrate failed to induce ovulation. Following 6 months of continuous GH administration a significant increase in the growth rate was evident, whereas no pubertal development was observed. These data are interpreted as demonstrating the suprahypophyseal origin of the sexual infantilism in a patient with inappropriate GH secretion. It is suggested that a combined deficiency of LH-RH and GH-RH may account for the aetiology of this disorder.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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7/15. Failure of ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone and human menopausal gonadotropins in isolated gonadotropin deficiency.

    A 30-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea, hypothalamic hypogonadism, decreased sense of smell, and primary infertility failed to respond to pulsatile exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In addition, failure to respond to stimulation with human menopausal gonadotropins was consistent with concomitant ovarian failure. Perturbation of normal cellular migration during embryogenesis in the regions of the olfactory placode, yolk sac, hindgut, and gonadal ridge may explain both the hypothalamic defect and ovarian failure experienced by this woman. She demonstrates that gonadal failure need not be accompanied by elevated gonadotropin levels; nor do low gonadotropin levels necessarily indicate potentially responsive ovaries. These findings are consistent with the coexistence of isolated gonadotropin deficiency and ovarian failure in the same individual.
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ranking = 4
keywords = ovulation
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8/15. Secondary hypogonadism in hemochromatosis.

    hemochromatosis is a rare disorder of iron storage. This report illustrates a case of hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism in a female with biopsy-proven hemochromatosis. Dynamic pituitary and gonadal testing revealed subnormal gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) but normal ovarian reserve, as shown by normal follicular stimulation with hMG. Thus, abnormalities of ovulation and menstruation in patients with hemochromatosis are most likely because of inadequate pituitary responsiveness to GnRH.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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9/15. kallmann syndrome: a case of twin pregnancy and review of the literature.

    In order to evaluate the possibilities for induction of ovulation, the functional competence of the pituitary gland of a woman with kallmann syndrome was examined by two consecutive dynamic GnRH tests. The second test was conducted after 1 week's treatment by a GnRH pump. The results, which showed some rise of LH but no response of FSH, favored induction by hMG/hCG therapy. Three treatment cycles resulted in a twin pregnancy which was normal and was carried to term. review of the literature shows only six previously reported pregnancies in women with kallmann syndrome. Five of them were treated by hMG/hCG, and one by pulsatile GnRH. The two methods of induction are discussed in relation to the heterogeneity of the pituitary and ovarian function in kallmann syndrome. We show that this heterogeneity dictates that the treatment for induction of ovulation should be individually adjusted according to the pituitary and ovarian competence.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ovulation
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10/15. The effect of leuprolide acetate in aiding induction of ovulation in hypergonadotropic hypogonadism: a case report.

    A 43-year-old woman with a history of 5 years of amenorrhea sought help in achieving a pregnancy. Her gonadotropins were found to be elevated and thus she was diagnosed as having ovarian failure. She was made to ovulate on many occasions by suppressing her gonadotropins first with estrogen, then stimulating her ovaries with hMG. However, she became refractory to this therapy and she was switched from estrogen to LA to suppress gonadotropins. The woman ovulated three times just with leuprolide therapy before any hMG was added. A possible hypothesis is that, on the way down to subnormal levels of LH and FSH, a critical level of gonadotropins was attained where they were still high enough to stimulate the follicles, but low enough to allow restoration of gonadotropin receptors, which previously had been down-regulated by the elevated gonadotropin levels.
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ranking = 4
keywords = ovulation
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