Cases reported "Hypokalemia"

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1/70. Persistent hypokalemia after successful adrenalectomy in a patient with Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion: possible role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition.

    Ectopic ACTH secretion is characterized by a high incidence of hypokalemia. The pathophysiology of hypokalemia has not been totally clarified, although it has been postulated that excessive amounts of adrenal steroids may play a role, as well as a possible role of the inhibition of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-OHSD). This enzyme normally converts cortisol to cortisone avoiding the mineralocorticoid action of cortisol. We present a patient with ectopic ACTH secretion due to a metastatic carcinoid tumor. The clinical picture was characterized by maintained hypokalemia (1.4 mmol/l) resistant to potassium, spironolactone and ketoconazole administration. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed but the hypokalemia persisted while he was receiving a physiological dose of cortisol. Eight days after adrenalectomy cortisol was replaced by an equivalent dose of dexamethasone. This change was followed by a rapid and persistent normalization of hypokalemia suggesting a mineralocorticoid effect of cortisol. In conclusion, the origin of hypokalemia in our patient with ectopic ACTH secretion was secondary to cortisol. We postulate that this peculiar effect of cortisol could have happened if an inhibition of 11beta-OHSD occurred.
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2/70. Liddle's syndrome: a report in a middle-aged woman.

    A 54-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus was hospitalized with generalized edema and weakness. She was also found to have hypertension, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Detailed examination showed subnormal plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration. Adrenal CT scanning revealed no adrenal tumor. A successful treatment with amiloride established the diagnosis of Liddle's syndrome for the patient. Liddle's syndrome, a rare hereditary disease usually found in young patients, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertension even in elderly individuals.
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3/70. A case of renin-producing adrenocortical cancer.

    Here we report a case of a renin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital complaining of thirst and generalized muscle weakness. She was diagnosed as being hypertensive and diabetic with associated hypokalemia and she had a hard elastic mass with a diameter of 10 cm on the left side of her neck. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a suprarenal mass on the left side (8.5 x 8 x 6.5 cm). Endocrinological examination demonstrated a marked elevation in the patient's serum glucocorticoid and sex steroid hormones as well as plasma renin activity. Histological examination of a sample taken from the neck mass revealed a metastasis from an adrenal carcinoma, which was stained positively with antibodies against cytochrome P450 and renin, establishing the diagnosis of a renin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. Trilostane was effective in reducing serum cortisol levels, but mitotane was ineffective.
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4/70. Intermittent hyperaldosteronism in a child due to an adrenal adenoma.

    aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) is a rare but potentially curable form of paediatric hypertension. We report a case of APA in a 9-year-old boy, suspected due to persistent hypokalaemia. Neither BP nor initial laboratory investigations disclosed the diagnosis and the presence of an APA was suggested by functional tests and radiological findings. Histologically, a cortical tumour was found associated with a marked medullary hyperplasia of both chromaffin and ganglion cells. CONCLUSION: This case reinforces the need for further investigations in patients with misleading clinical and laboratory data.
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5/70. pheochromocytoma producing vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    The syndrome of watery diarrhea associated with hypokalemia and achlorhydria was originally described in 1958. Subsequently, this syndrome was shown to be caused by a neuroendocrine tumor secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and such tumors are almost always pancreatic in origin. We describe the case of a 78-year-old woman with gradual onset of hypokalemia, watery diarrhea, and weight loss. After a left adrenal mass was discovered, the patient chose medical therapy over surgical intervention. Initially her condition responded, then gradually became refractory to medical therapy. She had elevated levels of VIP, pancreatic polypeptide, dopamine, and vanillylmandelic acid. Subsequently, the patient underwent surgical excision of the mass that was found to be a VIP-producing pheochromocytoma. After surgery her diarrhea subsided, and her electrolytes and affected neuroendocrine hormone levels normalized.
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6/70. A case of severe hypertension caused by ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    This report describes a rare case of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) arisen with symptomatic severe hypertension and hypokaliemia. A 55-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a clinical picture characterized by several episodes of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and right hemiplegia, related to severe arterial hypertension. Laboratory tests showed urinary levels of catecholamines, metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) in normal range; high urinary free cortisol excretion, elevated serum cortisol with loss of the circadian rhythm and low ACTH plasma levels. ACTH failed to respond to CRH administration. serum cortisol levels were not modified after high doses of dexamethasone. MRI showed bilateral macronodular hyperplasia of adrenal glands, whereas pituitary-MRI did not show tumoral lesions. Therefore, ACTH-independent macronodular hyperplasia was suspected. Though obese, the patient had no typical Cushing habit, and symptomatic hypertension with hypokaliemia was the only clinical evidence for this rare kind of Cushing's syndrome. After obtaining a satisfactory control of blood pressure, the patient was successfully submitted to laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy and underwent complete clinical remission. The histology showed adrenal macronodular hyperplasia. During the twenty-four month follow-up, the patient had no further transient ischemic attacks or need of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and withdrew the antihypertensive drugs.
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7/70. Preclinical Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia with excessive secretion of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone and corticosterone.

    A 64-year-old woman developed hypertension and hypokalemia, due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) with excessive secretion of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. plasma cortisol did not show a diurnal rhythm, and was not suppressed by dexamethasone (8 mg). plasma cortisol responded to ACTH and was increased by hypoglycemia without modifying ACTH levels. Radiological studies demonstrated that adrenal glands were enlarged with macronodules. Although the patient exhibited a low plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, hypokalemia and hypertension were observed. Hormonal findings would support the hypothesis that the tumor of AIMAH originated from cells of the upper zona fasciculata.
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8/70. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension with primary aldosteronism: report of 2 cases.

    Although unconfirmed, the syndrome idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), commonly seen in overweight 20- to 50-year-old women, has been proposed to have its origins in an endocrine-based disturbance of electrolytes. Herein we report on 2 women with IIH and primary aldosteronism (PAL). aged 57 and 55 (patients 1 and 2), each had a longstanding history of mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension, recurrent hypokalemia, and headaches. They were found to have IIH at ages 51 and 45. PAL was diagnosed at ages 57 and 35, respectively, due to proven left adrenal adenoma in patient 1; and presumptive adrenal nodular hyperplasia in patient 2. This is the first report to appear in the English medical literature that describes an association between IIH and PAL. It raises the prospect that in some cases of IIH associated with arterial hypertension, an autonomous production of aldosterone should be considered.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = adrenal
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9/70. Variant of pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome: hypertension and hypokalemia associated with normoreninemic normoaldosteronism.

    The case of a 48-year-old woman with a left adrenocortical adenoma and showing hypokalemia, hypertension and normoreninemic normoaldosteronism is reported. Basal plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels were within the reference ranges. The patient's plasma cortisol level decreased insufficiently at night, and was insufficiently decreased by nighttime administration of dexamethasone. She showed no Cushingnoid stigmata. Iodocholesterol scintigraphy revealed tumor-sided uptake alone. The plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate level was low-to-normal for her age. Metabolic alkalosis and increased potassium clearance after sodium thiosulfate loading were revealed. The plasma aldosterone level was within the normal range, but it was statistically higher than the range for patients with pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome. However, peripheral plasma renin activity (PRA) increased normally after the patient resumed an upright posture following furosemide administration. After adenomectomy the hypokalemia and hypertension were resolved, and the plasma ACTH, cortisol, and PRA remained within the reference ranges. The plasma aldosterone level decreased slightly, but also remained within the reference range after adenomectomy. Paradoxical hyperplasia in the non-neoplastic adrenal glomerulosa zone, which indicates primary aldosteronism, and slight atrophy of the non-neoplastic adrenal cortex, which indicates pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome, were demonstrated. These findings satisfied the criteria of pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome, but did not completely satisfy those of primary aldosteronism. However, the level of CYP11 B2 mRNA in the tumor was in the lower-limit of the range for adenomas associated with primary aldosteronism and was higher than the ranges for adenomas associated with pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome and overt Cushing's syndrome. Based on these results, this case was suspected to constitute a variant of pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome with slight hypersecretion of aldosterone.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = adrenal
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10/70. Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) simulating polymyositis.

    A 44-year-old woman presented with typical polymyositis findings associated with hypokalemia. Abdominal CT as well as plasma renin and aldosterone levels showed a right surrenal adenoma secreting aldosterone. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and resolved all the clinical and laboratory manifestations. hypokalemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polymyositis, even in the face of inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle biopsy.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = adrenal
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