Cases reported "Hypokalemia"

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1/101. life-threatening ventricular tachycardia due to liquorice-induced hypokalaemia.

    We report on a patient with hypokalaemia and severe ventricular tachycardia of torsades de pointes type which turned out to be caused by an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome associated with liquorice consumption. The patient, a 44-year-old woman, attended the hospital because of irregular heart rhythm and she displayed repeated episodes of life-threatening torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. The initial serum potassium was low: 2.3 mmol L-1. The patient was treated with potassium and magnesium infusions, and the dysrhythmias eventually ceased. Endocrinological investigations showed no indication of Cushing's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism. After some time it became clear that the patient had ingested moderately large amounts of liquorice every day for 4 months. After the patient stopped this habit the hypokalaemia and dysrhythmias did not recur and after more than 1 year there are no signs of cardiac illness.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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2/101. Low doses of liquorice can induce hypertension encephalopathy.

    Prolonged ingestion of liquorice is a well-known cause of hypertension due to hypermineralocorticoidism. We describe 2 cases of hypertension encephalopathy (in addition to the classical symptoms of hypertension, hypokalemia and suppression of the renin-aldosterone system) which resulted in pseudohyperaldosteronism syndrome due to the regular daily intake of low doses of liquorice. Glycyrrhizic acid, a component of liquorice, produces both hypermineralocorticism and the onset of encephalopathy through the inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Hypertension encephalopathy due to the daily intake of low doses of liquorice, however, has not been previously documented. It is proposed that some people could be susceptible to low doses of glycyrrhizic acid because of a 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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3/101. Bartter's syndrome in pregnancy: a case report and review.

    Bartter's syndrome is a rare renal tubular disorder, involving juxtaglomerular cells hyperplasia, characterized by normotensive hyper-reninism and secondary hyperaldosteronism, marked renal loss of potassium and profound hypokalaemia. Both clinical and biochemical features are heterogeneous, ranging from the incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient to marked clinical features of hypokalaemia. Inheritance is likely to be an autosomal recessive. We present a case of Bartter's syndrome complicating pregnancy in a Chinese woman. We documented an increasing demand for potassium supplement during pregnancy which stabilized by mid-trimester. The absence of pregnancy complications such as polyhydramnios indicated that the fetus was unlikely to be affected by the condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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4/101. Approach to the patient with hypertension, unexplained hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis.

    We present a patient with hypertension and hypokalemia secondary to an aldosterone-producing adenoma that was renin responsive (APARR). We discussed the sequential approach to the diagnosis of the different subtypes of primary aldosteronism and confirmed the presence of an APARR. The most common cause of primary aldosteronism is an aldosteronoma; functionally, these adenomas respond poorly to angiotensin ii but show a brisk response to adrenocorticotropin hormone. They have a pattern of aldosterone level that declines in parallel with cortisol levels. Our patient had an APARR, with an increase of aldosterone in the upright posture. The unusual physiologic response, incidence, and clinical characteristics of APARR are reviewed.
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ranking = 0.66720960739389
keywords = aldosteronism
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5/101. Intermittent hyperaldosteronism in a child due to an adrenal adenoma.

    aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) is a rare but potentially curable form of paediatric hypertension. We report a case of APA in a 9-year-old boy, suspected due to persistent hypokalaemia. Neither BP nor initial laboratory investigations disclosed the diagnosis and the presence of an APA was suggested by functional tests and radiological findings. Histologically, a cortical tumour was found associated with a marked medullary hyperplasia of both chromaffin and ganglion cells. CONCLUSION: This case reinforces the need for further investigations in patients with misleading clinical and laboratory data.
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ranking = 4
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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6/101. renin-producing serous cystoadenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Only a few renin-producing ovarian tumors have been reported, and most such ovarian tumors have been sex cord/stromal tumors. renin-producing ovarian epithelial tumors are quite rare. CASE: A 46-year-old woman presented with hypertension and hypokalemia. Examinations of the patient revealed elevated plasma renin activity, hyperaldosteronism and a pelvic mass. Subsequently, a right ovarian tumor mass was resected. Microscopic observation of the tumor revealed a well-differentiated serous cystadenocarcinoma. Immediately after surgery, blood pressure, serum potassium, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels returned to normal ranges. RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemical staining of this tumor indicated that it was producing renin. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a renin-producing ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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7/101. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension with primary aldosteronism: report of 2 cases.

    Although unconfirmed, the syndrome idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), commonly seen in overweight 20- to 50-year-old women, has been proposed to have its origins in an endocrine-based disturbance of electrolytes. Herein we report on 2 women with IIH and primary aldosteronism (PAL). aged 57 and 55 (patients 1 and 2), each had a longstanding history of mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension, recurrent hypokalemia, and headaches. They were found to have IIH at ages 51 and 45. PAL was diagnosed at ages 57 and 35, respectively, due to proven left adrenal adenoma in patient 1; and presumptive adrenal nodular hyperplasia in patient 2. This is the first report to appear in the English medical literature that describes an association between IIH and PAL. It raises the prospect that in some cases of IIH associated with arterial hypertension, an autonomous production of aldosterone should be considered.
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ranking = 1.6680240184847
keywords = aldosteronism
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8/101. Successful treatment by cyclooxyenase-2 inhibitor of refractory hypokalemia in a patient with Gitelman's syndrome.

    Gitelman's syndrome is manifested by hypokalemic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, normotensive hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism. hypokalemia can at times be refractory to treatment. We present a patient refractory to a variety of drugs including indomethacin, the nonspecific COX inhibitor. Rofecoxib, a specific COX 2 inhibitor, promptly elevated serum potassium concentration with normalization of plasma aldosterone and near normalization of renin without a change in serum magnesium. Our patient also had rhabdomyolysis, a rarely reported complication, which was also ameliorated by COX 2 inhibition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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9/101. Severe hypokalaemia in a Chinese male.

    A 34-year-old Chinese man developed acute, severe, generalized muscle weakness while mountain climbing. In the Emergency Department that morning, the most striking abnormalities were flaccid paralysis of both upper and lower limbs and a plasma potassium (K ) concentration (P(K)) of 1.7 mmol/l. To explain the basis for this constellation of findings, an imaginary consultation was sought with Professor McCance, the legendary integrative physiologist. Using both a deductive and a quantitative analysis, he illustrated that a simple story of an acute shift of K into cells was not sufficient to explain the patient's hypokalaemia. The clue he used to suspect a large total body deficit of K was a higher than expected rate of K( ) excretion on the initial spot urine (higher than expected ratio of K : creatinine in the urine). This interpretation was supported by the fact that the patient needed a large supplement of K( ) to raise his P(K) to just under 3 mmol/l. It was only after more detailed studies based on urine chemistry that an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment could be instituted. The final question was why one of the hallmarks of the diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism (hypertension) was absent, yet hypokalaemia was so severe.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hyperaldosteronism, aldosteronism
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10/101. Variant of pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome: hypertension and hypokalemia associated with normoreninemic normoaldosteronism.

    The case of a 48-year-old woman with a left adrenocortical adenoma and showing hypokalemia, hypertension and normoreninemic normoaldosteronism is reported. Basal plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels were within the reference ranges. The patient's plasma cortisol level decreased insufficiently at night, and was insufficiently decreased by nighttime administration of dexamethasone. She showed no Cushingnoid stigmata. Iodocholesterol scintigraphy revealed tumor-sided uptake alone. The plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate level was low-to-normal for her age. Metabolic alkalosis and increased potassium clearance after sodium thiosulfate loading were revealed. The plasma aldosterone level was within the normal range, but it was statistically higher than the range for patients with pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome. However, peripheral plasma renin activity (PRA) increased normally after the patient resumed an upright posture following furosemide administration. After adenomectomy the hypokalemia and hypertension were resolved, and the plasma ACTH, cortisol, and PRA remained within the reference ranges. The plasma aldosterone level decreased slightly, but also remained within the reference range after adenomectomy. Paradoxical hyperplasia in the non-neoplastic adrenal glomerulosa zone, which indicates primary aldosteronism, and slight atrophy of the non-neoplastic adrenal cortex, which indicates pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome, were demonstrated. These findings satisfied the criteria of pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome, but did not completely satisfy those of primary aldosteronism. However, the level of CYP11 B2 mRNA in the tumor was in the lower-limit of the range for adenomas associated with primary aldosteronism and was higher than the ranges for adenomas associated with pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome and overt Cushing's syndrome. Based on these results, this case was suspected to constitute a variant of pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome with slight hypersecretion of aldosterone.
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ranking = 2.6688384295756
keywords = aldosteronism
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