Cases reported "Hypokalemia"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/348. C-terminal HERG mutations: the role of hypokalemia and a KCNQ1-associated mutation in cardiac event occurrence.

    BACKGROUND: The long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically heterogeneous disease in which 4 genes encoding ion-channel subunits have been identified. Most of the mutations have been determined in the transmembrane domains of the cardiac potassium channel genes KCNQ1 and HERG. In this study, we investigated the 3' part of HERG for mutations. methods AND RESULTS: New specific primers allowed the amplification of the 3' part of HERG, the identification of 2 missense mutations, S818L and V822 M, in the putative cyclic nucleotide binding domain, and a 1-bp insertion, 3108 1G. hypokalemia was a triggering factor for torsade de pointes in 2 of the probands of these families. Lastly, in a large family, a maternally inherited G to A transition was found in the splicing donor consensus site of HERG, 2592 1G-A, and a paternally inherited mutation, A341E, was identified in KCNQ1. The 2 more severely affected sisters bore both mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of mutations in the C-terminal part of HERG emphasizes that this region plays a significant role in cardiac repolarization. Clinical data suggests that these mutations may be less malignant than mutations occurring in the pore region, but they can become clinically significant in cases of hypokalemia. The first description of 2 patients with double heterozygosity associated with a dramatic malignant phenotype implies that genetic analysis of severely affected young patients should include an investigation for >1 mutation in the LQT genes.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/348. Hypokalemic myopathy due to chronic alcoholism.

    A patient with hypokalemic myopathy occurring in the context of chronic alcoholism was reported. A 56-year-old male patient, heavy drinker for 20 years, complained of marked weakness and acutely developing pains in his limbs. The principal clinical findings were weakness and tenderness of the proximal limbs and girdle muscle. He was unable to lift his head or any extremities from the bed. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished, but not absent. There was no sensory disturbance except for muscle tenderness. These clinical manifestations disappeared gradually by abstinence from drinking, and potassium administration therapy, and the patient recovered completely on the 26th day after onset. On the day after admission (8th day), serum potassium value was 2.2mEq/L, and serum CPK activity was 4270IU. The ECG pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of low potassium content in serum, and the EMG pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of myopathy. These electrophysiological findings had a tendency to recover from this pattern to normal range correspondingly with clinical improvement. The repeated muscle biopsies showed that vacuolation, hyaline degeneration and significant phagocyte infiltration were observed in the muscle on the 9th day after the onset of muscle weakness, and that these pathological findings disappeared almost completely three weeks later. The frequently repeated examinations of potassium content and CPK activity in sera showed that there was a close correlation between these biochemical abnormalities and clinical improvememt. The pathogenesis of alcoholic myopathy and significance of CPK abnormality in chronic alcoholism were discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/348. life-threatening ventricular tachycardia due to liquorice-induced hypokalaemia.

    We report on a patient with hypokalaemia and severe ventricular tachycardia of torsades de pointes type which turned out to be caused by an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome associated with liquorice consumption. The patient, a 44-year-old woman, attended the hospital because of irregular heart rhythm and she displayed repeated episodes of life-threatening torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. The initial serum potassium was low: 2.3 mmol L-1. The patient was treated with potassium and magnesium infusions, and the dysrhythmias eventually ceased. Endocrinological investigations showed no indication of Cushing's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism. After some time it became clear that the patient had ingested moderately large amounts of liquorice every day for 4 months. After the patient stopped this habit the hypokalaemia and dysrhythmias did not recur and after more than 1 year there are no signs of cardiac illness.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/348. Hypokalemic myopathy due to chronic alcoholism.

    A patient with hypokalemic myopathy occurring in the context of chronic alcoholism was reported. A 56-year-old male patient, heavy drinker for 20 years, complained of marked weakness and acutely developing pains in his limbs. The principal clinical findings were weakness and tenderness of the proximal limbs and girdle muscle. He was unable to lift his head or any extremities from the bed. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished, but not absent. There was no sensory disturbance except for muscle tenderness. These clinical manifestations disappeared gradually by abstinence from drinking, and potassium administration therapy, and the patient recovered completely on the 26th day after onset. On the day after admission (8th day), serum potassium value was 2.2 mEq/L, and serum CPK activity was 4270 IU. The ECG pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of low potassium content in serum, and the EMG pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of myopathy. These electrophysiological findings had a tendency to recover from this pattern to normal range correspondingly with clinical improvement. The repeated muscle biopsies showed that vacuolation, hyaline degeneration and significant phagocyte infiltration were observed in the muscle on the 9th day after the onset of muscle weakness, and that these pathological findings disappeared almost completely three weeks later. The frequently repeated examinations of potassium content and CPK activity in sera showed that there was a close correlation between these biochemical abnormalities and clinical improvement. The pathogenesis of alcoholic myopathy and significance of CPK abnormality in chronic alcoholism were discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/348. Licorice-induced hypokalemic myopathy and hypokalemic renal tubular damage in anorexia nervosa.

    A patient with a history of anorexia nervosa developed licorice-induced hypokalemic myopathy. With potassium replacement, high CPK blood level and myopathic signs returned to normal. However, the patient manifested persistent hypokalemia and impaired renal function to concentrate and acidify the urine. Renal biopsy demonstrated intense degeneration and vacuolation of tubules with a normal glomerus which was consistent with hypokalemic nephropathy. Prolonged hypokalemia in anorexia nervosa is sometimes attributed to surreptitious purging or taking diuretics, but it is necessary to check the urine pH, the urine-specific gravity, and the urine potassium level in order to find underlying renal damage even after hypokalemic myopathy is treated successfully.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/348. Severe muscle weakness due to hypokalemia as a manifestation of small-cell carcinoma.

    We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with severe muscle weakness due to heavy hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.44 mmol/l) associated with inappropriate kaliuria and alkalemia. Subsequent investigation revealed the presence of ectopic ACTH hypersecretion due to a small-cell lung carcinoma. A significant clinical/laboratory improvement was achieved following chemotherapy-induced regression of the primary tumor. The profound hypokalemia was probably the result of cortisol hypersecretion, which in concert with the ACTH-induced decreased 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity can exhibit an increased mineralocorticoid activity. In addition, other ACTH-dependent mineralocorticoids may play a contributory role in the development of severe hypokalemia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/348. Hypokalaemic paralysis revealing Sjogren syndrome in an elderly man.

    A 73 year old white man presented with life threatening hypokalaemic paralysis requiring admission to an intensive care unit. Biochemical investigations showed severe hypokalaemia with hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis, a spot urine pH of 6.5, and a positive urinary anion gap, establishing the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. Autoimmune tests revealed Sjogren syndrome as the underlying cause of the distal renal tubular acidosis. Full recovery followed potassium and alkali replacement. This dramatic presentation of Sjogren syndrome has not previously been reported in an elderly man.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/348. hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with hypophosphatemia in a patient with hyperinsulinemia.

    A 34-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of acute quadriplegia. On admission, serum potassium was 2.1 mEq/L and serum inorganic phosphate was 1.4 mg/dL. Thyroid function was normal. serum levels of aldosterone, cortisol, and intact parathyroid hormone were normal. fasting plasma glucose was 109 mg/dL, and fasting serum insulin was 25.0 U/mL. Shortly after intravenous supplementation of potassium, muscle strength was normalized. Oral glucose tolerance test revealed impaired glucose tolerance and hyperresponse of insulin. During the oral glucose tolerance test, serum potassium and phosphate decreased significantly. These findings suggest that hyperinsulinemia and insulin-induced transmembrane shift of extracellular potassium and phosphate may have been involved in the abnormalities of serum electrolytes and development of hypokalemic periodic paralysis in the present patient.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/348. Prominent bifid T waves observed in the QT prolongation caused by complete atrioventricular blockade in a hypokalemic diabetic patient.

    A 63-year-old diabetic man was admitted with general fatigue. Electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission showed complete atrioventricular (AV) blockade associated with prominent bifid T waves. The second component of the bifid T waves was distinguished from U waves by the beat-to-beat varying bifidity and the nadir between the two components located at > or = 1 mm above the isoelectric line. Range of absolute QT interval was 535 to 650 ms. hypokalemia (3.6 mEq/L) was noted at admission. Partial restoration of the potassium level (3.9 mEq/L) prior to temporary ventricular demand pacing obscured the bifid T waves and attenuated the QT prolongation and dispersion to some extent (absolute QT interval ranging 520 to 620 ms). It was concluded that marked bradycardia caused by complete AV blockade (ie, a junctional escaped rhythm at a rate of 42 beats/min), hypokalemia, and underlying diabetes mellitus contributed in concert to the QT prolongation and dispersion leading to the prominent bifid T waves.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/348. Chronic microscopic enterocolitis with severe hypokalemia responding to subtotal colectomy.

    The authors present the first case report of a 50-year-old woman with a 33-year history of severe, chronic watery diarrhea and hypokalemia secondary to chronic active microscopic enterocolitis with patterns similar to lymphocytic colitis but with acute cryptitis and terminal ileum involvement microscopically. The progressive nature of her illness resulted in multiple hospital admissions secondary to hypokalemia with subsequent chronic renal failure. High continuous doses of oral potassium supplements failed to correct the hypokalemic episodes. After subtotal colon resection, the patient made a marked clinical improvement with normal serum potassium levels without receiving potassium supplementation.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Hypokalemia'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.