Cases reported "Hypokalemia"

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1/9. Prominent bifid T waves observed in the QT prolongation caused by complete atrioventricular blockade in a hypokalemic diabetic patient.

    A 63-year-old diabetic man was admitted with general fatigue. Electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission showed complete atrioventricular (AV) blockade associated with prominent bifid T waves. The second component of the bifid T waves was distinguished from U waves by the beat-to-beat varying bifidity and the nadir between the two components located at > or = 1 mm above the isoelectric line. Range of absolute QT interval was 535 to 650 ms. hypokalemia (3.6 mEq/L) was noted at admission. Partial restoration of the potassium level (3.9 mEq/L) prior to temporary ventricular demand pacing obscured the bifid T waves and attenuated the QT prolongation and dispersion to some extent (absolute QT interval ranging 520 to 620 ms). It was concluded that marked bradycardia caused by complete AV blockade (ie, a junctional escaped rhythm at a rate of 42 beats/min), hypokalemia, and underlying diabetes mellitus contributed in concert to the QT prolongation and dispersion leading to the prominent bifid T waves.
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2/9. Alternans of the repolarization wave in a case of hypochloremic alkalosis with hypopotassemia.

    A case of profound hypochloremic alkalosis with hypopotassemia is reported, showing electrocardiographic changes of electrical alternans of the repolarization wave (probably the U wave) without any change in the QRS complex. Transient concomitant P-pulmonale was noted. Hypopotassemia is discussed as a possible mechanism for the development of the electrical alternans.
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3/9. Giant negative U waves in a patient with uncontrolled hypertension and severe hypokalemia.

    A 66-year-old woman with a long history of hypertension had an electrocardiogram with giant negative U waves in left precordial leads despite hypokalemia. This seems to be the first report of giant negative U waves induced by uncontrolled hypertension with hypokalemia. The occurrence of negative U waves in the presence of profound hypokalemia is an important observation because it masks the electrocardiographic manifestation of hypokalemia.
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4/9. Electrocardiographical case. Young man with generalised myalgia.

    A 24-year-old man presented with generalised malaise and myalgia for three days. He presented to the Emergency Department after a fall at his workplace due to weakness. 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed normal sinus rhythm with ST depression in the leads V4 to V6, with a U wave. The tallest U wave appeared in V3. These ECG features are characteristic of hypokalaemia. ECG changes in hypokalaemia and differential diagnosis are discussed. A second case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with similar ECG changes of hypokalaemia is also presented.
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5/9. Electrocardiographical case. A tale of tall T's. Hyperkalaemia.

    A 63-year-old woman presented at the emergency department (ED) with a history of increasing lethargy and drowsiness. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed tall peaked T waves with broadening of the QRS interval, suggestive of hyperkalaemia. This patient had an elevated serum potassium level due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was treated with intravenous calcium chloride and insulin with 50% dextrose. The ECG changes associated with hyperkalaemia are discussed, with illustrations from a second 48-year-old male patient with renal failure who presented with malaise, lethargy and generalised weakness.
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6/9. Reversible hypocalcemic heart failure with T wave alternans and increased QTc dispersion in a patient with chronic renal failure after parathyroidectomy.

    Despite the crucial role of calcium in myocardial contractility, hypocalcemia has very rarely been reported as a reversible cause of heart failure. In this article, we describe a case of a 51-year-old woman with advanced stages of chronic renal failure after parathyroidectomy who exhibited congestive heart failure, severe hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. Severe hypocalcemia resulted from discontinuation of taking calcium supplements after parathyroidectomy and from reduced 1.25(OH)2D3 synthesis by damaged kidneys. The patient presented with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and ECG abnormalities (T wave alternans and increased QTc dispersion), both of which improved after correction of serum calcium levels. Her serum levels of total calcium corrected for serum albumin, but not serum levels of magnesium or potassium, positively and negatively correlated with EF and QTc dispersion, respectively. In the present case, both heart failure and the ECG abnormalities are directly associated with hypocalcemia.
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7/9. T-U wave alternans. A case report and review of the literature.

    A patient with severe hypertension, hypokalemia and marked T-U wave alternans on electrocardiogram is reported for its rarity. Relevant literature is reviewed. Recent data indicate that electric alternans is related to changes in action potential configuration, and that it may be a marker of cardiac electrical instability.
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8/9. atracurium use in a patient with familial periodic paralysis.

    We describe a patient with the hypokalemic type of familial periodic paralysis (FPP) who received atracurium for muscle relaxation as required for diagnostic laparoscopy. Electrocardiographic (EKG) T-wave changes suggestive of hypokalemia were not supported by blood determinations. Arterial blood measurements of potassium (K ), pH, and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and the patient's esophageal temperature were maintained within normal limits. The degree of muscle relaxation was closely monitored by a peripheral nerve stimulator and train-of-four (TOF) measurement of muscle twitch height. At the conclusion of the surgical procedure, no reversal to the muscle relaxant was needed or given. The patient regained preoperative muscle strength, and her postoperative course was uneventful.
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9/9. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in combined hypercalcaemia and hypokalaemia--case report.

    A 47-year-old woman presented with extreme hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid carcinoma. An electrocardiogram which was recorded when the hypercalcaemia was associated with hypokalaemia showed absence of the ST segment, prolonged T wave, a shortened QTac interval and prominent U waves.
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