Cases reported "Hyponatremia"

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1/59. adrenal insufficiency in smith-lemli-opitz syndrome.

    We describe three unrelated patients with adrenal insufficiency and RSH or smith-lemli-opitz syndrome (SLOS), a disorder due to deficient synthesis of cholesterol. These patients presented with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and decreased aldosterone-to-renin ratio, which is a sensitive measure of the renin-aldosterone axis. All patients had profound serum total cholesterol deficiency (14-31 mg/dl) and marked elevation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (10-45 mg/ dl). Two patients were newborn infants with 46, XY karyotypes and complete failure to masculinize; one of these patients also had cortisol deficiency. Both patients died within 10 days of birth of cardiopulmonary complications while on adrenal replacement therapy. The third patient diagnosed with SLOS at birth presented at age 7months with fever and diarrhea and was noted to have profound hyponatremia. This patient is maintaining normal serum electrolytes on mineralocorticoid replacement. We conclude that adrenal insufficiency may be a previously undetected and treatable manifestation in SLOS. We hypothesize that deficiency of cholesterol, an adrenal hormone precursor, may lead to insufficient synthesis of adrenal steroid hormones.
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2/59. Transient pseudo-hypoaldosteronism following resection of the ileum: normal level of lymphocytic aldosterone receptors outside the acute phase.

    Pseudo-hypoaldosteronism (PHA) is due to mineralocorticoid resistance and manifests as hyponatremia and hyperkalemia with increased plasma aldosterone levels. It may be familial or secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman with multifocal cancer of the colon, who developed PHA after subtotal colectomy, ileal resection and jejunostomy. She was treated with 6 g of salt daily to prevent dehydration, which she stopped herself because of reduced fecal losses. One month later she was admitted with signs of acute adrenal failure, i.e. fatigue, severe nausea, blood pressure of 80/60 mmHg, extracellular dehydration, hyponatremia (118 mmol/l); hyperkalemia (7.6 mmol/l), increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (200 mg/dl) and creatininemia (2.5 mg/dl), and decreased plasma bicarbonates level (HCO3-: 16 mmol/l; N: 27-30). However, the plasma cortisol was high (66 microg/100 ml at 10:00 h; N: 8-15) and the ACTH was normal (13 pg/ml, N: 10-60); there was a marked increase in plasma renin activity (>37 ng/ml/h; N supine <3), active renin (869 pg/ml; N supine: 1.120), aldosterone (>2000 pg/ml; N supine <150) and plasma AVP (20 pmol/l; N: 0.5-2.5). The plasma ANH level was 38 pmol/l (N supine: 5-25). A urinary steroidogram resulted in highly elevated tetrahydrocortisol (THF: 13.3 mg/24h; N: 1.4 /-0.8) with no increase in tetrahydrocortisone (THE: 3.16 mg/24h; N: 2.7 /-2.0) excretion, and with low THE/THF (0.24; N: 1.87 /-0.36) and alpha THF/THF (0.35; N: 0.92 /-0.42) ratios. The number of mineralocorticoid receptors in mononuclear leukocytes was in the lower normal range for age, while the number of glucocorticoid receptors was reduced. Small-bowel resection in ileostomized patients causes excessive fecal sodium losses and results in chronic sodium depletion with contraction of the plasma volume and severe secondary hyperaldosteronism. Nevertheless, this hyperaldosteronism may be associated with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia suggesting PHA related to the major importance of the colon for the absorption of sodium. In conclusion, this case report emphasizes 1) the possibility of a syndrome of acquired PHA with severe hyperkalemia after resection of the ileum and colon responding to oral salt supplementation; 2) the major increase in AVP and the small increase in ANH; 3) the strong increase in urinary THF with low THE/THF and alpha THF/THF ratios; 4) the normal number of lymphocytic mineralocorticoid receptors outside the acute episode.
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3/59. Severe hyponatremia caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency.

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with severe hyponatremia. Basal values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid hormone and cortisol were normal on admission. Impairment of water diuresis was observed by water loading test. Initially, we diagnosed her condition as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). By provocation test, we finally confirmed that the hyponatremia was caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. The basal values of ACTH and cortisol might not be sufficient to exclude the possibility of adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate adrenal function by provocation test or to re-evaluate it after recovery from hyponatremia.
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4/59. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated with lisinopril.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) associated with lisinopril therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 76-year-old white woman who was being treated with lisinopril and metoprolol for hypertension presented with headaches accompanied by nausea and a tingling sensation in her arms. Her serum sodium was 109 mEq/L, with a serum osmolality of 225 mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 414 mOsm/kg, and spot urine sodium of 122 mEq/L. diclofenac 75 mg qd for osteoarthritic pain and lisinopril 10 mg qd for hypertension was begun in 1990. lisinopril was increased to 20 mg qd in August 1994 and to 20 mg bid pm in August 1996 for increasing blood pressure; metoprolol 50 mg qd was added in July 1996. A diagnosis of SIADH was postulated and further evaluation was undertaken to exclude thyroid and adrenal causes. After lisinopril was discontinued and the patient restricted to 1000 mL/d of fluid, serum sodium gradually corrected to 143 mEq/L. The patient was discharged taking metoprolol alone for her hypertension; serum sodium has remained > or =138 mEq/L through April 1999, 32 months after discharge, despite daily use of diclofenac. DISCUSSION: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in antihypertensive doses may block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin ii in the peripheral circulation, but not in the brain. Increased circulating angiotensin I enters the brain and is converted to angiotensin ii, which may stimulate thirst and release of antidiuretic hormone from the hypothalamus, eventually leading to hyponatremia. CONCLUSIONS: SIADH should be considered a rare, but possible, complication of therapy with lisinopril and other ACE inhibitors.
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5/59. addison disease after appendicitis.

    A 14-year-old boy manifested acute abdominal pain, vomiting, high temperature and diarrhea. He also underwent increasing hyponatremia and hyperkalemia after appendectomy. Further testing confirmed addison disease. The serum adrenal antibody test was positive, and other autoimmune diseases were excluded.
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6/59. Inappropriate antidiuresis associated with pituitary adenoma--mechanisms not involving inappropriate secretion of vasopressin.

    We report an unusual case of inappropriate antidiuresis with undetectable vasopressin in an elderly man presenting with confusion due to severe hyponatremia. Further investigations led to the diagnosis of non-functional pituitary macroadenoma. The patient had normal thyroid and adrenal function. The abnormal water balance resolved promptly after transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, confirmed by a repeat water loading test. We conclude that inappropriate antidiuresis in the absence of excess vasopressin secretion may implicate mass effect from an underlying pituitary tumor.
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7/59. University of Miami Division of Clinical pharmacology Therapeutic Rounds: the water-intolerant patient and perioperative hyponatremia.

    Perioperative hyponatremia has been recognized as a serious in-hospital complication for many years. Because the kidney responds to changes in extracellular fluid tonicity by adjusting water excretion, a defect in any of several key elements of water excretion can lead to water retention and hyponatremia. Most cases of hyponatremia are caused by impaired renal water excretion in the presence of continued water intake. For the kidney to excrete excess free water and thereby protect the extracellular fluid against hyponatremia, there must be an adequate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), adequate delivery of glomerular filtrate to the diluting segments of the distal nephron, intact tubular diluting mechanisms, and appropriate inhibition of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) synthesis and release. Virtually all of the clinical disorders producing hyponatremia are based on abnormalities of these few mechanisms of water regulation. Finding the reason for impaired renal water excretion is the key to diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia. Impaired renal water excretion may be caused by impaired GFR (renal failure), impaired water delivery to the diluting segments of the distal nephron because of increased proximal reabsorption (decreased extracellular fluid volume and edematous states), impaired renal diluting mechanism (thiazide diuretics), the syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) due to a variety of causes including the perioperative state, and hypothyroidism or adrenal insufficiency. Any of the states that impair water excretion can produce hyponatremia in a patient with an initially normal serum sodium concentration if sufficient free water is supplied. Therefore, a patient who has one of the conditions listed above, including the perioperative state, may be considered "water intolerant" even if the serum sodium is normal. Such a patient is at risk for developing severe hyponatremia if given hypotonic IV fluids or a large oral water load. An understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to impaired water excretion and "water intolerance" is therefore an important key to avoiding perioperative hyponatremia.
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8/59. fatigue and hyponatremia in a 75-year-old woman: unusual presentation of hypophysitis.

    A 75-year-old woman presented with general fatigue progressing to somnolence. Laboratory tests showed marked hyponatremia. TSH in the normal range, but low levels of free T3 and free T4. Evaluation of pituitary hormones and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary unmasked findings characteristic for hypophysitis with secondary adrenal insufficiency and secondary hypothyroidism. Hormonal substitution with hydrocortisone and levothyroxine resulted in rapid improvement of all symptoms and signs. Without additional treatment shrinkage of the pituitary gland could be documented. Our report extends the known clinical and pathological spectrum of hypophysitis and illustrates the need to include this uncommon entity in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia even in elderly patients.
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9/59. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism with complex malformation of internal genitalia. A case report.

    At the age of 3 weeks, a girl presenting with acute dehydration was admitted to our hospital. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed malformations of the genitourinary tract, an acute urinary infection and electrolyte disturbances (severe hyponatremia at 115 mmol/l and mild hyperkalemia at 5.6 mmol/l). According to anamnestic data, the child was born to healthy, nonconsanguineous parents. Vaccum extraction was done in the 38th gestational week due to pathological cardiotocography (CTG) findings. Auxological parameters were within the normal range for gestational age. Normal values for 17-OH progesterone and ACTH ruled out congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Pathologically high aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA) confirmed the diagnosis of pseudohypoaldosteronism with salt-wasting crisis which proved to be transient.
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10/59. Missense mutations cluster within the carboxyl-terminal region of DAX-1 and impair transcriptional repression.

    DAX-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a key role in the development and function of the adrenal gland and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. Mutations in the gene encoding DAX-1 result in X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). Affected boys typically present with primary adrenal failure in infancy or childhood and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at the time of puberty. The majority of DAX1 mutations described to date are nonsense or frameshift mutations that result in premature truncation of the DAX-1 protein and loss of DAX-1 repressor function. Relatively few missense mutations in DAX1 have been reported. Here, we describe missense mutations in three additional families with X-linked AHC. When combined with previous reports, the DAX1 missense mutations appear to cluster within restricted regions of the putative ligand-binding domain of DAX-1 and affect amino acids that are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that these regions correspond to critical functional domains. Transcription assays, using a variety of artificial and native target genes, were performed to assess the effects of these mutations on the function of DAX-1. All DAX-1 missense mutant constructs showed marked loss of repressor function, with the exception of I439S, a mutation previously shown to be associated with delayed-onset adrenal failure and incomplete hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. These data indicate that most DAX1 missense mutations associated with classic AHC exhibit marked loss of function. The locations of these mutations thereby identify important functional domains in the carboxyl-terminus of the protein.
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