Cases reported "Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms"

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1/48. liposarcoma of the hypopharynx. A case report and review of the literature.

    A new case of well differentiated hypopharyngeal liposarcoma is reported. The author reviews the literature about the clinical and histologic features of these tumors. From the 93 head and neck liposarcomas reported 13 are located in the hypopharynx. The mean age of presentation is 61 years and males are largely predominant. Etiology is still unknown. Tumor size does not seem to affect the prognosis. Usually patients do not present with cervical lymph node metastasis nor distant metastasis. Histologic diagnosis according to Enzinger and Weis's classification could be difficult especially to distinguish between lipoma and well differentiated liposarcoma. The main prognostic factor is histologic grade but early recognition combined with a complete surgical excision can result in a decreased local recurrence rate and high survival rate. Low grade tumors often recur locally but distant metastases are rare. From the 8 well differentiated tumors reviewed 6 presented a local recurrence 2 months to 20 years after surgery but only 1 patient died without disease. High grade tumors are much more aggressive locally and metastasize frequently. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are proposed in selected cases without evidence to be of value.
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2/48. Clinical delivery of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy for relapsed or second-primary head and neck cancer using a multileaf collimator with dynamic control.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concave dose distributions generated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were applied to re-irradiate three patients with pharyngeal cancer. patients, MATERIALS AND methods: Conventional radiotherapy for oropharyngeal (patients 1 and 3) or nasopharyngeal (patient 2) cancers was followed by relapsing or new tumors in the nasopharynx (patients 1 and 2) and hypopharynx (patient 3). Six non-opposed coplanar intensity modulated beams were generated by combining non-modulated beamparts with intensities (weights) obtained by minimizing a biophysical objective function. Beamparts were delivered by a dynamic MLC (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) forced in step and shoot mode. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Median PTV-doses (and ranges) for the three patients were 73 (65-78), 67 (59-72) and 63 (48-68) Gy. Maximum point doses to brain stem and spinal cord were, respectively, 67 Gy (60% of volume below 30 Gy) and 32 Gy (97% below 10 Gy) for patient 1; 60 Gy (69% below 30 Gy) and 34 Gy (92% below 10 Gy) for patient 2 and 21 Gy (96% below 10 Gy) at spinal cord for patient 3. Maximum point doses to the mandible were 69 Gy for patient 1 and 64 Gy for patient 2 with, respectively, 66 and 92% of the volume below 20 Gy. A treatment session, using the dynamic MLC, was finished within a 15-min time slot.
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3/48. granular cell tumor of the hypopharynx treated by endoscopic CO(2) laser excision: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: granular cell tumor (GCT), or Abrikossoff's tumor, is an unusual lesion probably arising from schwann cells. It is frequently found in the head and neck region, where the tongue is the most commonly affected site. Involvement of the hypopharynx is exceedingly rare because, to the best of our knowledge, only four cases have been reported in the literature. methods: We describe hypopharyngeal GCT in two women aged 29 and 52 years, respectively. RESULTS: In the first patient, preoperative diagnostic examination, including endoscopy, CT, and MRI scan, was suggestive of a benign lesion arising from the posterior wall of the hypopharynx. In the second patient, a previous biopsy of the postcricoid area performed elsewhere suggested a diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, and CT scan staged the lesion as T1 N0. In both cases, treatment included surgical excision under microlaryngoscopy with CO(2) laser. The histopathologic study of the specimens, supported by immunohistochemical techniques, determined the lesions to be a GCT. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patients were discharged 12 and 2 days after surgery, respectively. Both patients were asymptomatic without evidence of recurrence when last seen 2 years and 4 months after surgery, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of submucosal hypopharyngeal lesions. endoscopy and radiologic imaging do not display any typical finding suggestive of the diagnosis, which can be based only on histologic findings. Resection of the tumor, when technically feasible, should be performed under microlaryngoscopy with the CO(2) laser, which makes it possible to work in a bloodless field with minimal thermal damage and reduction of scarring and postoperative edema.
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4/48. Intracranial metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial metastases are rarely clinically diagnosed in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Only 7 patients with metastases to the cavernous sinus from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas have been reported. methods: A retrospective study revealed 13 patients with intracranial metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In a 53-year-old woman a cavernous sinus metastasis of a laryngeal carcinoma was histologically diagnosed by using a CT-guided surgical navigation system and was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. RESULTS: The mean survival was 4.3 months. Predictive factors for longer survival were absence of extracranial disease, age younger than 60 years, and treatment with radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis for patients with intracranial disease is poor. The current development of computer-assisted stereotactic navigation and stereotactic radiotherapy may facilitate surgical diagnostic exploration and improve treatment, especially in patients without extracranial disease.
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5/48. CD5 expression in a lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type as a marker for early dissemination and aggressive clinical behaviour.

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) developing in response to chronic infection or autoimmune stimuli has been recognized as a possible site of origin for a distinct type of B-cell lymphoma. While preferentially occurring in the stomach, MALT-type lymphomas can be found in virtually all organs. MALT-type lymphomas normally follow an indolent course, with a tendency to remain localized at their site of origin for a prolonged period of time. Histologically, MALT-type lymphomas are heterogeneous covering a cytological spectrum ranging from centrocyte-like cells to smaller lymphoid cells or monocytoid B-cells. Usually a small number of transformed blasts are also present. Immunohistochemically, the malignant cells express markers of B-cell lineage, but are distinct from follicular lymphomas (which express CD10), mantle cell lymphomas (expressing cyclin d1 and CD5) and small lymphocytic lymphoma, which express CD5 and CD23. In contrast to the usual phenotype CD20 CD10-CD5-cyclin d1-, scattered reports in the literature have documented expression of CD5 in marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of MALT-type. However, these cases are rare, and aberrant CD5-expression has been thought to be a marker for early dissemination and aggressive behavior in some patients, while other reports have also found CD5 expression in localized indolent MALT-type lymphomas. We report a patient with a CD5 MALT-type lymphoma following an aggressive clinical course without histological progression who relapsed only 18 months after local radiotherapy at the initial localizations (conjunctiva of the right upper eye lid and hypopharynx), and showed a rapid generalization to the contralateral conjunctiva, mediastinal lymph nodes and the esophagogastric junction. Our case lends further support to the notion that CD5 MALT-lymphomas arising in the head-and-neck area and/or the ocular adnexa might be characterised by an aggressive clinical course.
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6/48. Does laryngectomy improve swallowing after chemoradiotherapy? A case study.

    organ preservation protocols of high-dose chemoradiotherapy have become fairly common to treat head and neck cancers. However, significant swallowing problems can occur. This study examines swallowing, oral tongue pressures, and tongue base-to-pharyngeal wall pressures in a patient who underwent total laryngectomy for improvement of swallowing after chemoradiotherapy for treatment of a hypopharyngeal tumor. The patient underwent concurrent videofluorographic and manometric examination of swallowing and examination of oral tongue pressures after the laryngectomy. One healthy subject was used as a control. After the laryngectomy, the patient no longer aspirated; however, he could swallow only liquids and pureed foods. He demonstrated difficulty with bolus clearance through the oral cavity and pharyngocervical esophagus. Pharyngeal pressures were reduced compared with those of the control subject. While total laryngectomy will stop unremitting aspiration, swallowing after chemoradiation may be severely compromised. This may not be overcome by total laryngectomy.
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7/48. Usefulness of a first transferred free flap vascular pedicle for secondary microvascular reconstruction in the head and neck.

    The authors found that a previously transferred free flap vascular pedicle, distal to the first microvascular anastomosis, can be used as a recipient vessel for an additional free flap transfer. Free flap transfers were performed by using the standard procedure in patients with head and neck cancer. The mean age of the patients was 62 years. Five patients were men and three were women. A second free flap was transferred for secondary primary head and neck cancer in two cases, facial deformity in two cases, osteomyelitis of the skull in two cases, recurrent cancer in one case, and exposure of a mandibular reconstruction plate in one case. The interval between the two operations was from 4 months to 12 years (median, 21 months). All secondary free flaps were performed successfully. In two cases, the external jugular vein proximal to the previously anastomosed site was used for venous drainage. In another case, additional venous anastomosis was performed for flap congestion. It became clear that a previously transferred free flap vascular pedicle could be used as a recipient vessel for microvascular anastomosis. This is an excellent procedure for additional free flap transfers.
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8/48. Histopathological examination of ruptured carotid artery after irradiation.

    We report 2 cases of carotid artery rupture after irradiation that was performed 1 year and 17 years before the ruptures. When irradiation-induced arterial rupture occurs, it usually does so within a few months following irradiation. However, the histopathological sections obtained in the present cases revealed carotid artery necrosis that was presumably induced by irradiation. Carotid artery rupture is sudden, massive hemorrhage that ranks among the most dreaded complications in the head and neck. However, several patients have been saved by hospital personnel who discovered the rupture in time to take appropriate measures such as cleaning of the wound and protection with myocutaneous or myofascial flaps. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the possibility of rupture or perforation of major vessels after irradiation, even when the radiation therapy was performed a long time ago.
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9/48. Hypopharyngeal neurinoma: report of two cases.

    Hypopharyngeal neurinoma: report of two cases. Acta Otolaryngol 2002; Suppl 547: 100-103. Hypopharyngeal neurinoma is a very rare disease and we found reports of only seven cases in the literature. Laryngomicrosurgery (LMS) and lateral neck exploration are two operating methods for hypopharyngeal neurinoma. Of the seven reported cases, the operating method was mentioned in six: two were operated on using LMS and four using the neck exploration method. It is necessary to select the operating method based on the size of the tumor, the existence of a stem, the risk of bleeding, etc. It is difficult to trace the original nerve of the tumor and this could not be done conclusively in the previous reports.
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10/48. Synovial sarcoma arising from the hypopharynx: a case report.

    Synovial sarcoma is a relatively rare soft tissue tumor. About 3 to 10% of cases arise in the head and neck, with the majority in the parapharyngeal region. We hereby report a 22-year-old male patient with synovial sarcoma confined to the hypopharynx. Treatment included wide surgical excision followed by radiotherapy. It is of interest that the lesion recurred 12 years after the initial primary surgery for synovial sarcoma at the same site. The patient has been disease-free for five years.
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