Cases reported "Hypophosphatemia"

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1/38. Musculoskeletal manifestations of osteomalacia: report of 26 cases and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to describe the musculoskeletal manifestations in a selected population of 26 patients with biopsy-proven osteomalacia (OM) and provide a literature update. methods: The 26 patients with biopsy-proven OM were selected from a total number of 79 patients who underwent anterior iliac crest biopsy. The diagnosis of OM was confirmed by the presence of an osteoid volume greater than 10%, osteoid width greater than 15 microm, and delayed mineralization assessed by double-tetracycline labeling. RESULTS: OM was caused by intestinal malabsorption in 13 patients, whereas six other patients presented with hypophosphatemia of different causes. Five elderly patients presented with hypovitaminosis D, and in two patients the OM was part of renal osteodystrophy. Twenty-three patients presented with bone pain and diffuse demineralization, whereas three other patients had normal or increased bone density. Characteristic pseudofractures were seen in only seven patients. Six of the 23 patients with diffuse demineralization had an "osteoporotic-like pattern" without pseudofractures. Prominent articular manifestations were seen in seven patients, including a rheumatoid arthritis-like picture in three, osteogenic synovitis in three, and ankylosing spondylitis-like in one. Two other patients were referred to us with the diagnosis of possible metastatic bone disease attributable to polyostotic areas of increased radio nuclide uptake caused by pseudofractures. Six patients also had proximal myopathy, two elderly patients were diagnosed as having polymalgia rheumatica, and two young patients were diagnosed as having fibromyalgia. One of the patients who presented with increased bone density was misdiagnosed as possible fluorosis. CONCLUSION: OM is usually neglected when compared with other metabolic bone diseases and may present with a variety of clinical and radiographic manifestations mimicking other musculoskeletal disorders.
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2/38. PHEX expression in parathyroid gland and parathyroid hormone dysregulation in X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a renal phosphate (Pi) wasting disorder with defective bone mineralization, is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene (a Pi-regulating gene with homology to endopeptidases on the x chromosome). parathyroid hormone (PTH) status in XLH has been controversial, with the prevailing belief that hyperparathyroidism develops in response to Pi therapy. We report a 5-year-old girl with XLH (patient 1) who had significant hyperparathyroidism at presentation, prior to initiation of therapy. We examined her response to a single oral Pi dose, in combination with calcitriol, and demonstrated a rise in serum concentration of intact PTH, which peaked at 4 h and paralleled the rise in serum Pi concentration. We also present two other patients whose parathyroid glands were analyzed for PHEX mRNA expression following parathyroidectomy. Patient 2 had autonomous hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal insufficiency, and patient 3, with XLH, developed autonomous hyperparathyroidism after 8 years of therapy with Pi and calcitriol. Following parathyroidectomy, patient 3 exhibited an increase in both serum Pi concentration and renal Pi reabsorption. The abundance of PHEX mRNA, relative to beta-actin mRNA, in parathyroid glands from patients 2 and 3 was several-fold greater than that in human fetal calvaria, as estimated by ribonuclease protection assay. In summary, we have shown that hyperparathyroidism can be a primary manifestation of XLH and that PHEX is abundantly expressed in the parathyroid gland. Given that PHEX has homology to endopeptidases, we propose that PHEX may have a role in the normal regulation of PTH.
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3/38. Diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey in a patient with oncogenic osteomalacia.

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by hypophosphatemic osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. The same biochemical features are found in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia and sporadic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with unknown etiology. Oncogenic osteomalacia is cured by resection of the responsible tumor. In contrast, patients with other types of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia need long-term treatment with large doses of active vitamin D3. Therefore, detection of the responsible tumor for oncogenic osteomalacia has great clinical importance. However, there is no standard method for detecting the tumor for oncogenic osteomalacia, and the responsible tumor is often very difficult to be found. We describe a patient with adult-onset osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. Although oncogenic osteomalacia was suspected, cranial, chest, and abdominal computed tomography scanning, urological and otolaryngological examinations, and detailed palpation for soft tissue mass failed to detect the responsible tumor. However, magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey revealed a tumor in the right femoral bone. Resection of the tumor resulted in normalization of serum phosphate and renal phosphate handling. Because the most frequent causes for oncogenic osteomalacia are tumors in bone or soft tissue, magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey is a very powerful method for detecting the responsible tumor. Vigorous search for tumors with this method in patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia would be helpful not only for proper management of patients, but also for clarifying the identity of sporadic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.
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4/38. Postoperative hypocalcemic tetany caused by fleet phospho-soda preparation in a patient taking alendronate sodium: report of a case.

    This case report describes a patient who was previously prescribed alendronate (Fosamax) and presented with postoperative hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany after bowel preparation with Fleet Phospho-Soda. This report suggests that patients taking bone metabolism regulators may not be able to respond appropriately to hypocalcemic stressors.
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5/38. reflex sympathetic dystrophy in hypophosphataemic osteomalacia with femoral neck fracture: a case report.

    We report a male patient who presented with suspicion of skeletal metastases based upon an abnormal 99-mTc bone scan, which showed increased uptake at both femoral heads, left femoral neck, and several ribs. The images also suggested reflex sympathetic dystrophy, subcapital fracture of the left femur, and rib fractures. A diagnosis of hypophosphataemic osteomalacia was finally made.
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6/38. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (oncogenic osteomalacia).

    A case of tumor-induced phosphaturic osteomalacia in a 54 year old man is reported. The patient was admitted because of progressive muscle spasms with pain and weakness in the bilateral thighs. Laboratory data showed hypophosphatemia, decreased tubular resorption of phosphate (TRP), a low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, and a high serum alkaline phosphatase level. Radiologic examinations revealed multiple lesions of osteomalacia in the ribs, and a small mass in the lower posterior mediastinum. After removal of the tumor, clinical symptoms disappeared and hypophosphatemia, decreased TRP, and the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level were corrected. Microscopical examination revealed that the tumor was composed of mature adipose tissues, osseous tissues, and primitive stromal zones including osteoclast-like giant cells, non-mineralized woven bone, and various sized blood vessels. Patho-physiologic observations suggested that the tumor secreted some humoral substances inhibiting 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity, renal phosphate resorption, and parathyroid hormone production.
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7/38. Craniofacial hemangiopericytoma associated with oncogenic osteomalacia: case report.

    A craniofacial hemangiopericytoma associated with oncogenic osteomalacia is described and the literature is reviewed. A 46 year-old male with multiple fractures and hypophosphatemia was found to have a craniofacial mass extending from the right ethmoid sinus into the right frontal lobe. Initial detection of the tumor was made with an 111Indium-pentreotide scan (Octreoscan). Gross total resection of the tumor was achieved and the patient received postoperative radiation therapy. One year after surgery, the patient remains free of tumor with significant increase in bone density and normal phosphate levels. This is the first report of a hemangiopericytoma invading the brain that was associated with paraneoplastic hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Also, this is the first reported detection of a hemangiopericytoma by an Octreoscan. Primary detection and secondary surveillance of hemangiopericytomas may be possible with serial Octreoscans.
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8/38. Recognition and management of hungry bone syndrome--a case report.

    Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) following successful parathyroid surgery is a well described phenomenon. However, few studies have clearly addressed this syndrome or looked at the outcome of perioperative management. We report a case of HBS following successful parathyroid surgery. The perioperative management is discussed and literature pertaining to this interesting case is reviewed.
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9/38. MEPE, a new gene expressed in bone marrow and tumors causing osteomalacia.

    Oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (OHO) is characterized by a renal phosphate leak, hypophosphatemia, low-serum calcitriol (1,25-vitamin-D3), and abnormalities in skeletal mineralization. Resection of OHO tumors results in remission of the symptoms, and there is evidence that a circulating phosphaturic factor plays a role in the bone disease. This paper describes the characterization and cloning of a gene that is a candidate for the tumor-secreted phosphaturic factor. This new gene has been named MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and has major similarities to a group of bone-tooth mineral matrix phospho-glycoproteins (osteopontin (OPN; HGMW-approved symbol SPP1), dentin sialo phosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein II (IBSP), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). All the proteins including MEPE contain RGD sequence motifs that are proposed to be essential for integrin-receptor interactions. Of further interest is the finding that MEPE, OPN, DSPP, DMP1, IBSP, and BMP3 all map to a defined region in chromosome 4q. Refined mapping localizes MEPE to 4q21.1 between ESTs D4S2785 (WI-6336) and D4S2844 (WI-3770). MEPE is 525 residues in length with a short N-terminal signal peptide. High-level expression of MEPE mRNA occurred in all four OHO tumors screened. Three of 11 non-OHO tumors screened contained trace levels of MEPE expression (detected only after RT-PCR and Southern 32P analysis). Normal tissue expression was found in bone marrow and brain with very-low-level expression found in lung, kidney, and human placenta. Evidence is also presented for the tumor secretion of clusterin (HGMW-approved symbol CLU) and its possible role as a cytotoxic factor in one of the OHO patients described.
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10/38. Recognition and management of hungry bone syndrome--a case report.

    Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) following successful parathyroid surgery is a well described phenomenon. However, few studies have clearly addressed this syndrome or looked at the outcome of perioperative management. We report a case of HBS following successful parathyroid surgery. The perioperative management is discussed and literature pertaining to this interesting case is reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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