Cases reported "Hypotension"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/13. Reversal by vasopressin of intractable hypotension in the late phase of hemorrhagic shock.

    BACKGROUND: Hypovolemic shock of marked severity and duration may progress to cardiovascular collapse unresponsive to volume replacement and drug intervention. On the basis of clinical observations, we investigated the action of vasopressin in an animal model of this condition. methods AND RESULTS: In 7 dogs, prolonged hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure [MAP] of approximately 40 mm Hg) was induced by exsanguination into a reservoir. After approximately 30 minutes, progressive reinfusion was needed to maintain MAP at approximately 40 mm Hg, and by approximately 1 hour, despite complete restoration of blood volume, the administration of norepinephrine approximately 3 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1) was required to maintain this pressure. At this moment, administration of vasopressin 1 to 4 mU. kg(-1). min(-1) increased MAP from 39 /-6 to 128 /-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), primarily because of peripheral vasoconstriction. In 3 dogs subjected to similar prolonged hemorrhagic shock, angiotensin ii 180 ng. kg(-1). min(-1) had only a marginal effect on MAP (45 /-12 to 49 /-15 mm Hg). plasma vasopressin was markedly elevated during acute hemorrhage but fell from 319 /-66 to 29 /-9 pg/mL before administration of vasopressin (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vasopressin is a uniquely effective pressor in the irreversible phase of hemorrhagic shock unresponsive to volume replacement and catecholamine vasopressors. Vasopressin deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/13. Postpartum clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome.

    Clostridium bacteria are anaerobic Gram positive spore-form-ing bacilli, known to cause distinct clinical syndromes such as botulism, tetanus, pseudomembranous colitis and myonecrosis. The natural habitats of Clostridium species are soil, water and the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. In 5-10% of all women, Clostridium species are also found to be normal inhabitants in the microbial flora of the female genital tract. In case of a non-sexually transmitted genital tract infection, Clostridium species are isolated in 4-20%, and clostridium welchii seems to be the most common isolate. clostridium sordellii is rarely encountered in clinical specimens (1% of Clostridium species), but it has been described as a human pathogen with fatal potential. Two toxins, a lethal and a hemorrhagic (that antigenically and pathophysiologically appear similar to clostridium difficile toxins B and A, respectively) are responsible for this potential. Reviewing the obstetric literature, only six cases of postpartum endometritis caused by C. sordellii, are described - all being fatal. In addition, one lethal case of spontaneous endometritis resulting from C. sordellii is reported. The clinical aspects of these cases include: - sudden onset with influenza-like symptoms in previously healthy women - progressive refractory hypotension - local and spreading tissue edema - absence of fever Laboratory findings include: - marked leukocytosis - elevated hematocrit. This paper reports the seventh fatal postpartum C. sorlellii associated toxic shock syndrome - the first recognized in scandinavia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/13. diabetes mellitus and autonomic dysfunction after vacor rodenticide ingestion.

    A case of N-3 pyridylmethyl-N' 4 nitrophenyl urea (Vacor) rodenticide poisoning in a 52-year-old man is presented. Vacor is structurally related to alloxan and streptozotocin, agents that have been used extensively to produce diabetes mellitus in laboratory animals. Seven days after ingestion of Vacor, the patient presented in diabetic ketoacidosis complicated by postural hypotension and adynamic ileus. The patient recovered from ketoacidosis but has continued to require insulin. With infusion of arginine, glucagon rose from 185 to 650 pg./ml. and c-peptide from 0.5 to 3.4 ng./ml. Six weeks after onset of diabetes, no anti-islet-cell antibodies were detected. Muscle capillary basement membrane thickness on electron microscopy was found to be 1,918 /- 194 A. The absence of hyperglycemia after Vacor ingestion should not lead to complacency on the part of the attending physician. The patient must be observed closely for development of ketoacidosis and treated prophylactically with nicotinamide, the suggested antidote.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/13. Nitric-oxide-lowering effect of terlipressin in decompensated cirrhosis: comparison to the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and correlation with clinical status.

    Systemic vasodilatation and arterial hypotension, refractory to adrenergic vasopressors, portend a poor prognosis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. The production of large amounts of nitric oxide, consequent to endotoxin-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-mediated upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), has been suggested to be central to this phenomenon. Terlipressin has recently been shown in an animal model of cirrhosis to suppress endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha-mediated upregulation of iNOS, thereby preventing overproduction of nitric oxide and restoring normal vascular tone. We present the first evidence that this effect of terlipressin may also occur clinically, in a patient with child-Pugh class C cirrhosis, endotoxaemia, a raised circulating TNF-alpha concentration, and marked systemic vasodilatation with refractory arterial hypotension. Beneficial effects of terlipressin on circulating nitrate and nitrite concentrations, haemodynamic status, plasma renin levels and indocyanine green clearance were comparable to those of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (mars). Our findings suggest that terlipressin may be the vasopressor agent of choice in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and provide a rationale for combination terlipressin and mars therapy when the therapeutic response to either treatment alone is suboptimal.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/13. Near-fatal amitraz intoxication: the overlooked pesticide.

    Amitraz is commonly used in agricultural industries throughout the world as a farm-animal insecticide. Despite its widespread use, amitraz intoxication is extremely rare and mainly occurs through accidental ingestion by young children. Severe, life-threatening amitraz intoxication in adults is very rarely recognized and reported. Described herein is a previously healthy 54-year-old patient who accidentally ingested a mouthful of liquid amitraz concentrate, and rapidly developed life-threatening clonidine-like overdose syndrome, manifested as nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, bradypnoea, and deep coma. Supportive treatment, including mechanical ventilation, and atropine administration resulted in full recovery within 48 hr. Very few cases of near-fatal amitraz poisoning in adults have been described in the medical literature, leading to low awareness of physicians in general practice to the potential toxicity of amitraz. As a consequence, cases of amitraz poisoning are not recognised and therefore erroneously treated as the much more commonly recognized organophosphate and carbamate intoxication. In our discussion, we review the clinical and laboratory manifestations of amitraz poisoning, including clinical hints that aid in the recognition of this often-overlooked diagnosis. Differentiation of amitraz intoxication from the much more commonly seen pesticide-related organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is of utmost importance, in order to avoid erroneous, unnecessary, and often dangerous treatment.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/13. Systemic toxicity after an ocular exposure to xylazine hydrochloride.

    There are limited reports of human overdose with the animal tranquilizer, xylazine hydrochloride. The reported effects include hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory depression. Ocular exposures to xylazine have not been previously reported. A 38-year-old man arrived in the Emergency Department, reporting the accidental irrigation of both eyes with approximately 8 mL of xylazine (100 mg/mL) 30 min before arrival. The patient was asymptomatic. The eyes were copiously irrigated with isotonic crystalloid. Two hours after the exposure, the patient developed sinus bradycardia (40-50 beats/min), hypotension (90/60 mm Hg), and a decreased level of consciousness. The patient was admitted for observation, during which the bradycardia and hypotension were noted to persist. He remained otherwise asymptomatic. The symptoms resolved without intervention, other than i.v. fluids, approximately 25 h after the exposure. The patient was discharged home. This case demonstrates that ocular exposure to xylazine can cause systemic central nervous system and cardiovascular effects.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/13. insulin reverses haemodynamic changes and pulmonary oedema in children stung by the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock.

    The efficacy of insulin administration in reversing haemodynamic changes in pulmonary oedema in victims of poisonous scorpion sting is assessed by a study based on animal experiments in which insulin administration reversed metabolic and electrocardiographic changes induced by scorpion envenomation. Six previously healthy children aged 18 months to 11 years were admitted to hospital five to 17 hours after scorpion sting. Frusemide for raised central venous pressure and pulmonary oedema, crystalloid infusion for reduced central venous pressure, and hydrocortisone and dopamine for hypotension were used as standard therapy. insulin (0.3 units g-1 of glucose) was administered when the standard therapy failed to produce an improvement, and at the earliest sign of haemodynamic instability. Reversal of pulmonary oedema and haemodynamic changes, and attainment or normal respiratory rate, blood pressure and central venous pressure, were observed. It is concluded that insulin administration may be useful in reversing haemodynamic changes and pulmonary oedema in victims of scorpion stings.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/13. dopamine-phenytoin interaction. A cause of hypotension in the critically ill.

    Five critically ill patients received dopamine hydrochloride intravenously to support their blood pressure. When seizures developed, intravenous phenytoin sodium therapy was begun. Coincident with the infusion of phenytoin, the blood pressure, which was stable on the dopamine infusion, declined rapidly. Analysis of these cases led to a hypothesis that the interaction of dopamine and phenytoin produced the hypotension. When this hypothesis was tested in the normovolemic dog, intravenous dopamine produced no change in the blood pressure, and the addition of a phenytoin infusion had little effect. In animals rendered hypovolemic and hypotensive by bleeding, intravenous dopamine returned the blood pressure to the prebleeding level. At this point, an infusion of phenytoin produced a sustained decrease in the blood pressure. The mechanism of this action may be related to a combination of catecholamine depletion and myocardial depression.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/13. Pathophysiologic alterations in endotoxemia. Similarities to an animal model.

    The validity of animal models of human sepsis has been questioned. We describe a patient who experienced a short episode of endotoxemia (? bacteremia) with resultant pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary edema from increased alveolar capillary membrane permeability, hypoxemia, hypotension, and relative leukopenia, which mimics the pathophysiologic changes noted following infusion of pseudomonas bacteria into awake sheep. The similarity of abnormalities and their resolution suggests that pseudomonas infusion in sheep is a valid experimental model of human septic shock.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/13. Intracavernous sodium nitroprusside: inappropriate impotence treatment.

    On the basis of reports describing nitric oxide as a form of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and on our own experience with intracavernous use of nitric oxide-releasing substances in animal models, we undertook an approved human study of intracavernous sodium nitroprusside as a treatment for impotence. We report our early experience in which severe hypotension and only mild tumescence in our first 3 patients caused us to discontinue the trial.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Hypotension'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.