Cases reported "Hypotension"

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1/13. Acute vision loss in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) often present with renal insufficiency and hypertension. We present two children with ARPKD and end-stage renal disease who developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and vision loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs rarely in children and has never been reported in children with ARPKD or end-stage renal disease. Both of our patients were chronically hypotensive and anemic, which are known risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy.
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2/13. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and dialysis: role of hypotension and anemia.

    The pathogenesis of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) primarily involves interference with the posterior ciliary artery blood supply to the prelaminar optic nerve. Uremic patients often have coexisting pathology such as hypotension (decreased blood delivery), or hypertension, atherosclerosis (increased resistance to blood supply), and anemia (low blood oxygen carrying capacity), predisposing them to AION. We describe a 49-year-old patient on dialysis for many years. He had long-standing hypotension, worsened during each dialysis treatment. He awoke one morning at age 48 complaining of blurred vision in the left inferior field. Based on the clinical course, funduscopic and fluorangiographic examination and visual field defects, AION was diagnosed. Nine months after the loss of vision in the left eye, vision in the right eye became blurred and worsened over the next 24 hours. The diagnosis of AION in the right eye was made. At the last examination ten months later, the patient, still amaurotic, was given a very poor prognosis for further recovery of the visual defects. Surprisingly, very few cases of AION have been reported in chronic uremic patients on dialysis: to the best of our knowledge, only 12 including ours. Most of these cases share some features, including hypotension above all and anemia as common risk factors. Neither the type of dialysis treatment (hemo-, peritoneal dialysis) nor sex seem to have any influence on the occurrence of AION. Uremic children can be affected. What is striking in the three published pediatric cases is that they all had polycystic kidney disease. Treatment of AION in all 12 cases consisted of a combination of steroids, i.v. saline, blood transfusions and rhEpo. AION was more frequently bilateral and irreversible, ending in permanent amaurosis. In conclusion, this study aims to stress that most cases of AION occurring in chronic uremic patients on dialysis have some common features, including hypotension above all and anemia as common risk factors.
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3/13. Variable hemodynamic fluctuations during resection of multicentric extraadrenal pheochromocytomas.

    PURPOSE: To report the perioperative management and the serious hemodynamic fluctuations during manipulation of an organ of Zuckerkandl tumour in a patient undergoing resection of multicentric extraadrenal pheochromocytomas. CLINICAL FINDINGS: A 28-yr-old man who had undergone at age 12 a laparotomy for excision of an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma complained of paroxysmal headache, occasional sweating and palpitations. The arterial blood pressure (BP) was 200/100 mmHg. A 24-hr-urine collection showed catecholamines 5076 microg x 24 hr(-1) (normal < 25 microg x 24 hr(-1)). Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed two retroperitoneal masses, one adjacent to the lower pole of the right kidney and a second larger mass located at the aortic bifurcation in the region of the organ of Zuckerkandl. The patient was scheduled for excision of multiple extraadrenal pheochromocytomas. He was prepared preoperatively for two weeks with prazosin 1 mg po q six hours and propranolol 10 mg tid. Manipulation of the infrarenal tumour was uneventful but manipulation of the Zuckerkandl tumour resulted in severe hypertensive episodes with BP ranging from 200/100 to 320/120 mmHg. Surgery was interrupted temporarily; the hypertensive crisis was controlled by the infusion of sodium nitroprusside and by iv phentolamine and esmolol. CONCLUSION: In a patient undergoing resection of recurrent multicentric extraadrenal pheochromoctyomas, severe hypertensive episodes occurred during manipulation of one tumour but not during manipulation of the other. This may be attributed to inadequate preparation of the patient, difficult surgical dissection of the large Zuckerkandl pheochromocytoma, and/or secondary to an excessive and different pattern of release of catecholamines during manipulation of the Zuckerkandl tumour.
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4/13. Persistent hypotension associated with hypermedullipinemia: a new syndrome.

    A new syndrome is described in a patient with advanced renal insufficiency. This consists of severe and persistent hypotension causing weakness but associated with a clear mental status. Also present is evidence for decreased vascular reactivity. The hypotension was not orthostatic. The hypotension was associated with a circulating vasodepressor substance having the characteristics of medullipin 1. The medullipin appears to have been derived from the remaining right kidney. hypotension existed despite the presence of major prohypertensive mechanisms, including an endstage kidney, hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronemia. It is likely that hypotension due to hypermedullipinemia is an entity occurring in the human being.
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5/13. Refractory hypotension and edema caused by right atrial compression in a woman with polycystic kidney disease.

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and long-standing hypertension who developed persistent hypotension. While in the hospital for the treatment of bacteriemia, the patient had low systolic blood pressures (90 to 100 mm Hg), which was thought to be the consequence of infection. After the infection was adequately controlled and the blood pressure did not improve, an echocardiogram was done to further elucidate her hypotension. It was nondiagnostic and revealed an ejection fraction of 70% with left ventricular hypertrophy. Shortly after discharge, she developed significant lower extremity edema and her blood pressure remained low. Due to the low blood pressure it was not possible to mobilize the fluid with her dialysis treatments. A repeat transthoracic echocardiogram at that time revealed that the right atrium was partially compressed throughout the cardiac cycle by polycystic hepatic tissue. This tissue invaginated up through the right hemidiaphragm. A partial liver resection was considered for the patient. Instead, right nephrectomy was performed and the blood pressure improved.
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6/13. Correction of renal hypertension after kidney transplantation from a donor with gitelman syndrome.

    The relationship between the kidney and blood pressure control is complex. Monogenetic forms of hypertension have recently been identified that implicate specific mutations responsible for blood pressure control. The thiazide sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) has been implicated in the control of blood pressure, however a direct link between the kidney NCC and blood pressure regulation is lacking. Here, we report a case of chimerism in which a kidney from a patient with gitelman syndrome was transplanted into a non-Gitelman hypertensive recipient. After transplantation, postural hypotension resulted, necessitating discontinuation of all antihypertensive medications used for treatment of calcineurin-induced hypertension. This is the first reported case of acquired gitelman syndrome after transplantation. Transplantation of a Gitelman "kidney" into a hypertensive recipient provides additional support for the role of the kidney NCC in blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, this case suggests the potential use of thiazide diuretics in the treatment of calcineurin-induced hypertension.
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keywords = kidney
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7/13. The anesthetic management of a child with chronic hypotension for renal transplantation.

    The anesthetic management of renal transplant recipients requires the maintenance of an adequate perfusion pressure to ensure viability of the donated kidney. A common finding among patients with end-stage renal disease is chronic hypertension. We report a case involving a 2-year-old child with an age-adjusted blood pressure below normal, undergoing transplantation of an adult cadaveric kidney, during which high-dose vasopressor medications were used to sustain the child's blood pressure at above-normal levels to help ensure perfusion of the adult allograft.
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keywords = kidney
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8/13. Trauma of occult hydronephrotic kidney.

    The occult unilateral hydronephrotic kidney is often discovered during the genitourinary evaluation of patients sustaining blunt abdominal trauma. Few cases have been reported documenting the angiographic, computerized tomography (CT), and ultrasound appearances. Two cases are described which demonstrate that relatively minor trauma can precipitate hematuria and hypovolemic shock. angiography demonstrated the bleeding site in both cases and was utilized in conjunction with other parameters of clinical assessment to plan initial management. CT and ultrasound proved to be useful noninvasive diagnostic parameters for baseline and follow-up studies in patients undergoing conservative management. They accurately demonstrated the degree of hydronephrosis, residual renal parenchymal, and resolving hematoma.
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keywords = kidney
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9/13. Management of hypertension in patients with acute stroke.

    Lowering systemic blood pressure (BP) in patients with acute cerebral infarction may produce clinical deterioration. Because of impaired cerebral autoregulation and the spontaneous fluctuations in BP following stroke, antihypertensive medication should be avoided in patients with acute cerebral infarction unless vital organs such as the heart or kidney are compromised, the diastolic BP rises to 130 mm Hg or greater, or the patient has hypertensive encephalopathy. Brief remarks about BP control in intracerebral hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage are also included.
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keywords = kidney
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10/13. Obstruction of the inferior vena cava complicating hemodialysis in polycystic kidney disease.

    Two patients with polycystic kidney disease and renal failure developed profound hypotension within 30 minutes after starting hemodialysis. After ruling out all recognized causes of hypotension during early dialysis, we found that their vena cavas were obstructed by compression of the vessels against the spinal column by the greatly enlarged polycystic kidneys. Immediately after bilateral nephrectomy, the patients had dialysis, with removal of large amounts of fluid without causing hypotension. We speculate that compression of the vena cava by massively enlarged polycystic kidneys may significantly contribute to the renal insufficiency by greatly increasing renal venous pressure.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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