Cases reported "Hypotension"

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1/101. Uremic autonomic neuropathy: evaluation of ephedrine sulphate therapy for hemodialysis-induced hypotension.

    The hemodynamic response to ephedrine sulphate were studied in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis therapy with chronic renal failure due to renal amyloidosis. The evaluation (including cardiac catheterization studies) and estimation of responses to Valsalva maneuvers before and after ephedrine administration documented the diagnosis of autonomic insufficiency. Oral ephedrine failed to influence the episodes of severe dialysis-induced hypotension. Also the patient did not benefit from the infusion of Aramine. These studies suggest that catecholamine stores of adrenergic nerves may be depleted in uremic patients with clinical signs of autonomic neuropathy.
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keywords = nerve
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2/101. Coronary artery spasm induced by trigeminal nerve stimulation and vagal reflex during intracranial operation.

    This report describes a case of ventricular fibrillation resulting from coronary vasospasm during intracranial operation under general anesthesia. An autonomic response associated with the intracranial procedure caused a coronary spasm, which was worsened by alpha-agonists. nitroglycerin effectively resolved the coronary spasm and co-complications persisted.
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keywords = nerve
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3/101. life-threatening haemorrhage following obturator artery injury during transurethral bladder surgery: a sequel of an unsuccessful obturator nerve block.

    In spite of prior blockade of the obturator nerve with 1% mepivacaine (8 ml) utilizing a nerve stimulator, violent leg jerking was evoked during transurethral electroresection of a bladder tumour approximately 1 h after the blockade in a 68-year-old man. The patient became severely hypotensive immediately following the jerking, and a large lower abdominal swelling concurrently developed. The urgent laparotomy indicated that the left obturator artery was severely injured by the resectoscope associated with the bladder perforation, causing acute massive haemorrhage. The patient recovered uneventfully after adequate surgery. Investigation of the literature suggested that both our nerve stimulation technique and anatomical approach were appropriate. It was therefore unlikely that our block resulted in failure because of an inappropriate site for deposition of the anaesthetic. However, consensus does not appear to have been obtained as to the concentration and volume of the anaesthetic necessary for prevention of the obturator nerve stimulation during the transurethral procedures. The concentration and volume of mepivacaine we used might have been too low and/or small, respectively, to profoundly block all the motor neuron fibres of the nerve. Alternatively, stimulation of the obturator nerve might occur because of the presence of some anatomical variant, such as the accessory obturator nerve or its abnormal branching. In conclusion, some uncertainty appears to exist in the effectiveness of the local anaesthetic blockade of the obturator nerve. In order to attain profound blockade of the motor neuron fibres of the obturator nerve and thereby prevent the thigh-adductor muscle contraction which can lead to life-threatening situations, we recommend, even with a nerve stimulator, to use a larger volume of a higher concentration of local anaesthetic with a longer duration in the obturator nerve block for the transurethral procedures.
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ranking = 577.16803794547
keywords = nerve block, block, nerve
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4/101. bradycardia, reversible panconduction defect and syncope following self-medication with a homeopathic medicine.

    Alkaloid extracts from the plant aconitum species have been used in various forms of herbal remedies predominantly as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Many of these alkaloids are extremely potent cardiotoxins and documented cases of various arrhythmias with fatal outcomes have been reported. We report a case of self-medication with 'tincture of aconite' resulting in severe bradycardia, reversible panconduction defect evidenced by sinus inactivity, atrioventricular dissociation with idiojunctional rhythm and left bundle branch block pattern resulting in hypotension and syncope. Complete reversal of ECG findings with marked improvement in symptoms was noted within a few hours. Herbal medicines containing aconite alkaloids may result in severe cardiotoxicity, and strict regulatory measures are warranted to curb unsupervised use for therapeutic purposes.
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ranking = 8.8103012296674
keywords = block
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5/101. hypotension with dobutamine: beta-adrenergic antagonist selectivity at low doses of carvedilol.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of marked hypotension resulting from the concomitant use of low-dose carvedilol and intravenous dobutamine. CASE SUMMARY: A 54-year-old white man with severe heart failure was placed on carvedilol 3.125 mg orally twice a day; three days later the dosage was increased to 6.25 mg orally twice a day. His symptoms of heart failure worsened with increasing fluid retention, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. He was admitted for treatment of decompensated heart failure with intravenous dobutamine. With each increase in intravenous dobutamine, systolic blood pressure fell. dobutamine was discontinued when systolic blood pressure reached 56 mm Hg. In a subsequent admission for decompensated heart failure, when the patient was not taking carvedilol, he was treated with intravenous dobutamine and systolic blood pressure increased. DISCUSSION: Although carvedilol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist, at low doses it is a selective beta1-adrenergic antagonist. dobutamine is a beta1-, beta2-, and alpha1-adrenergic agonist. Typically, patients with heart failure treated with intravenous dobutamine have a small increase in systolic blood pressure. We propose that the drop in blood pressure with dobutamine in this patient was caused by a fall in systemic vascular resistance due to vascular beta2-adrenergic receptor activation. The normal increase in cardiac output was partially blocked by selective beta1-adrenergic blockade at low doses of carvedilol. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-adrenergic blockade with carvedilol is now common therapy for patients with congestive heart failure. Intravenous dobutamine is often used when these patients have worsening heart failure. Recognition that treatment with dobutamine in patients taking low doses of carvedilol may result in hypotension is important for appropriate monitoring and therapy.
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ranking = 26.430903689002
keywords = block
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6/101. Predicting outcome from coma: man-in-the-barrel syndrome as potential pitfall.

    The glasgow coma scale motor score is often used in predicting outcome after hypoxic-ischemic coma. Judicious care should be exerted when using this variable in predicting outcome in patients with coma following hypotension since borderzone infarction can obscure the clinical picture. We describe a patient who underwent skull base surgery for a schwannoma of the left facial nerve. The operation, which lasted for 10 h, was conducted under controlled hypotension. After the intervention the patient remained comatose with absent arm movements upon painful stimuli. An absent motor score usually carries a poor prognosis. However, magnetic resonance inversion recovery imaging of the brain showed bilateral hyperintense lesions in the arm-hand area indicative of borderzone ischemic damage. The patient received optimal supportive care and after 17 days he regained consciousness with 'man-in-the-barrel syndrome', which also further improved over time.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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7/101. Symptomatic hypotension during arm cycle ergometry exercise: a report of five cases.

    We report five cases of vasovagal and vasodepressor syncope or near-syncope that occurred during arm cycle ergometry. In each case, arm exercise in the seated position had been performed immediately after dynamic leg exercise. A likely mechanism involves a decrease in preload from venous pooling of blood in the lower extremities after leg exercise, and excessive stimulation of ventricular mechanoreceptors with resultant sympatho-inhibition and enhanced vagal tone. Four of the cases occurred early in the course of the exercise program, between the 8th and 10th sessions. The single case of true syncope occurred in a patient not receiving a beta-receptor blocking medication. No further events occurred when the exercise regimen was changed such that arm cycle ergometry was performed before leg exercise. We recommend that when arm ergometry is incorporated into an exercise program: (1) a cool-down period of exercise is performed after dynamic leg exercise, or (2) arm exercise is performed before dynamic leg exercise. These maneuvers may preclude the occurrence of symptomatic hypotension.
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ranking = 8.8103012296674
keywords = block
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8/101. Fatal nifedipine ingestions in children.

    nifedipine is a prototypical dihydropyridine calcium channel "blocker" that can cause hypotension and cardiac conduction abnormalities. When compared to other calcium channel antagonists, overdoses have been reported to be relatively benign with treatment consisting mainly of supportive care. We report two pediatric cases of death secondary to accidental ingestion of long acting nifedipine (Adalat). Both cases did not respond to aggressive supportive care that included calcium, atropine, epinephrine, glucagon, sodium bicarbonate, and transthoracic pacing.
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ranking = 8.8103012296674
keywords = block
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9/101. hypotension following the initiation of tizanidine in a patient treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor for chronic hypertension.

    Centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists are one of several pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of spasticity related to disorders of the central nervous system. In addition to their effects on spasticity, certain adverse cardiorespiratory effects have been reported. Adults chronically treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may have a limited ability to respond to hypotension when the sympathetic response is simultaneously blocked. The authors present a 10-year-old boy chronically treated with lisinopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, to control hypertension who developed hypotension following the addition of tizanidine, an alpha-2 agonist, for the treatment of spasticity. The possible interaction of tizanidine and other antihypertensive agents should be kept in mind when prescribing therapy to treat either hypertension or spasticity in such patients.
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ranking = 8.8103012296674
keywords = block
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10/101. hypotension and functional left ventricular obstruction during dobutamine stress echocardiography--two case reports.

    Although hypotension during dobutamine stress echocardiography has been reported, the mechanism of this response is still controversial. In two patients, a 72-year-old woman and 64-year-old man, with exercise-induced ST-T change, continuous-wave Doppler examination of the left ventricular cavity was performed at baseline and peak dobutamine infusion. No echocardiographic abnormalities at rest or angiographic coronary lesions were observed in either patient. The intracavitary pressure gradient at peak dosage of dobutamine for both patients was 121 mm Hg and 100 mm Hg, and was reproducibly confirmed by cardiac catheterization. During dobutamine infusion, echocardiography or left ventriculography revealed that papillary muscle motion was dramatically augmented by dobutamine and mid-left ventricular obstruction was produced at the systolic phase. Although blood pressure response improved following beta-blocker treatment, intracavitary pressure gradient during dobutamine infusion remained the same. A hypotensive response during dobutamine stress echocardiography may be produced by the development of dynamic intraventricular obstruction and a vasodepression reflex. The exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes may have been related to the systolic pressure augmentation in the mid-to-apical left ventricular cavity.
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ranking = 8.8103012296674
keywords = block
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