Cases reported "Hypotension"

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1/124. Reversal by vasopressin of intractable hypotension in the late phase of hemorrhagic shock.

    BACKGROUND: Hypovolemic shock of marked severity and duration may progress to cardiovascular collapse unresponsive to volume replacement and drug intervention. On the basis of clinical observations, we investigated the action of vasopressin in an animal model of this condition. methods AND RESULTS: In 7 dogs, prolonged hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure [MAP] of approximately 40 mm Hg) was induced by exsanguination into a reservoir. After approximately 30 minutes, progressive reinfusion was needed to maintain MAP at approximately 40 mm Hg, and by approximately 1 hour, despite complete restoration of blood volume, the administration of norepinephrine approximately 3 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1) was required to maintain this pressure. At this moment, administration of vasopressin 1 to 4 mU. kg(-1). min(-1) increased MAP from 39 /-6 to 128 /-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), primarily because of peripheral vasoconstriction. In 3 dogs subjected to similar prolonged hemorrhagic shock, angiotensin ii 180 ng. kg(-1). min(-1) had only a marginal effect on MAP (45 /-12 to 49 /-15 mm Hg). plasma vasopressin was markedly elevated during acute hemorrhage but fell from 319 /-66 to 29 /-9 pg/mL before administration of vasopressin (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vasopressin is a uniquely effective pressor in the irreversible phase of hemorrhagic shock unresponsive to volume replacement and catecholamine vasopressors. Vasopressin deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition.
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keywords = drug
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2/124. Overdose of Rogaine Extra Strength for men topical minoxidil preparation.

    CASE REPORT: minoxidil is a potent arterial vasodilator used in the treatment of hypertension. A side effect, hypertrichosis, has prompted the marketing of a topical preparation, Rogaine, for the treatment of male-pattern baldness. Recently, a 5% solution of minoxidil became available over-the-counter as Rogaine Extra Strength For men hair Regrowth Treatment. We describe an oral overdose of minoxidil 3 g as the Rogaine Extra Strength preparation. Toxicity manifested as profound hypotension, requiring vasopressor support, intubation, prolonged tachycardia, and fluid overload with pleural effusions, requiring several days of therapy with furosemide. This is the largest reported ingestion of minoxidil and the first reported overdose of the extra strength 5% solution.
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ranking = 1480.7543924205
keywords = overdose
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3/124. Abolished nocturnal blood pressure fall in a boy with glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism.

    Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is a rarely recognised cause of arterial hypertension. We report the features of a 13-year-old boy with hypertension (casual blood pressure (BP) 140-180/95-110 mm Hg) discovered during a routine paediatric check. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) revealed significant hypertension with an abolished nocturnal BP fall (mean daytime BP 155/108 mm Hg, mean night-time BP 156/104 mm Hg, nocturnal BP fall 0/4%) which was indicative of secondary hypertension. Despite triple antihypertensive drug therapy the hypertensive control was unsatisfactory. Laboratory tests revealed hypokalaemia (3.0 mmol/l), suppressed plasma renin activity (0.012 nmol/l/h) and high plasma aldosterone (1.190 nmol/l). The diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism was established and GRA was further confirmed by the presence of the chimaeric GRA-gene and dexamethasone therapy was initiated. During the next 2 months of dexamethasone therapy all three antihypertensive drugs were discontinued and BP remained under control with restoration to a normal nocturnal BP fall (mean daytime BP 129/77 mm Hg, mean night-time BP 113/64, nocturnal BP fall 12/17%). A change of therapy from dexamethasone to spironolactone was necessary due to the side effects of corticosteroids after 3 months. spironolactone alone (0.8-2 mg/kg/day) was able to control the BP sufficiently. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of abolished nocturnal BP fall in a patient with genetically proven GRA. This study indicates that GRA can cause severe hypertension even in children, associated with an abolished nocturnal BP fall. GRA thus should be excluded in all hypertensive patients with circadian BP rhythm disturbances.
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4/124. Profound bradycardia and hypotension following spinal anaesthesia in a patient receiving an ACE inhibitor: an important 'drug' interaction?

    An 86-year-old man on whom a transurethral resection of prostate was performed under spinal anaesthesia developed profound bradycardia and hypotension with disturbance of consciousness during transfer to the recovery room. Initial treatment with atropine produced rapid improvement in cardiovascular and cerebral function. A further hypotensive episode (without bradycardia) occurred approximately 1 h later but responded rapidly to methoxamine. The patient made a full recovery during an overnight stay on the High Dependency Unit. Possible mechanisms for this event are discussed, with the proposal that the concomitant administration of captopril and the relative unavailability of angiotensin ii may have significantly contributed to the problem.
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5/124. Utilization of a glucagon infusion in the management of a massive nifedipine overdose.

    This case report describes a continuous i.v. infusion of glucagon used to reverse the cardiovascular manifestations of a nifedipine overdose in a patient who presented after a massive nifedipine extended-release tablet ingestion. In this patient, glucagon appeared to be effective in the management of this toxicologic emergency.
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ranking = 3701.8859810512
keywords = overdose
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6/124. suicide attempt by pure citalopram overdose causing long-lasting severe sinus bradycardia, hypotension and syncopes: successful therapy with a temporary pacemaker.

    In few cases, pure citalopram overdose at doses above 600 mg showed electro-cardiographic changes with prolonged QT intervals and sinus bradycardia gradually resolving within 12-24 hours after intoxication. We report on a 32-year-old patient with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who ingested a total of 800 mg citalopram to attempt suicide due to an interpersonal disappointment. She developed severe sinus bradycardia with a minimal pulse rate of 41/min within about 4 hours after intoxication lasting up to six days during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Further, hypotension and syncopes occurred. No QT interval prolongations were recorded. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of pure citalopram overdose-induced long-lasting sinus bradycardia associated with severe hypotension and intermittent syncopes that required therapy with a temporary pacemaker.
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ranking = 4442.2631772615
keywords = overdose
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7/124. Tardive dystonia provoked by concomitantly administered risperidone.

    Two cases of tardive dystonia are reported. The first case was an 18-year-old schizophrenic woman suffering from parkinsonism and hypotension induced by antipsychotic drugs. risperidone (4 mg/day) was added to her drug regimen and after increasing the dosage to 6 mg/day, she began to exhibit retrocollis. The second case was a 61-year-old woman who had schizophrenia and tardive dyskinesia. After replacing chlorpromazine (75 mg/day) with risperidone (4 mg/day), she began to exhibit retrocollis. The retrocollis in both cases was considered to be tardive dystonia provoked by risperidone administered concomitantly with other antipsychotics. risperidone is reported to produce few extrapyramidal symptoms, but these cases suggested that changing from other drugs to risperidone, or rapidly increasing risperidone dosage, may provoke tardive syndrome.
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ranking = 3
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8/124. Fatal nifedipine ingestions in children.

    nifedipine is a prototypical dihydropyridine calcium channel "blocker" that can cause hypotension and cardiac conduction abnormalities. When compared to other calcium channel antagonists, overdoses have been reported to be relatively benign with treatment consisting mainly of supportive care. We report two pediatric cases of death secondary to accidental ingestion of long acting nifedipine (Adalat). Both cases did not respond to aggressive supportive care that included calcium, atropine, epinephrine, glucagon, sodium bicarbonate, and transthoracic pacing.
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ranking = 740.37719621025
keywords = overdose
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9/124. Evaluation of spinal cord blood flow during prostaglandin E1-induced hypotension with power Doppler ultrasonography.

    STUDY DESIGN: Intraoperative power Doppler ultrasonography was used to evaluate the spinal cord blood flow in cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients during hypotensive anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) induced hypotension on spinal cord blood flow (SBF) during spinal surgery. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: hypotension is frequently induced to decrease blood loss during surgery and to diminish the need for blood transfusion. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is reported to maintain cerebral, liver, and renal blood flow during surgery. However, there are few reports on spinal cord blood flow. methods: Eleven patients underwent laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. After a French door type laminoplasty was carried out, hypotension was induced with PGE1. Before and during hypotension, we evaluated blood flow in the anterior spinal cord artery by determining the pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) using power Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS: Before hypotension, the mean blood pressure was 80 mmHg. The blood pressure decreased to 60 mmHg using PGE1 (P<0.01), although the PI and RI were significantly higher than before hypotension (PI, P=0.0076 RI, P=0.02). CONCLUSION: The pulsatility and resistance indices during hypotension were significantly higher than before hypotension, suggesting that the autoregulation of the anterior spinal cord artery and anterior spinal cord blood flow were maintained with hypotension using PGE1. Prostaglandin E1 may be a useful drug for hypotensive anesthesia in spinal surgery.
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10/124. Continuous calcium chloride infusion for massive nifedipine overdose.

    A 37-year-old woman presented with persistent hypotension and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema after massive nifedipine overdose. Judicious use of continuous and prolonged high-dose IV calcium infusion was administered to provide sustained increases in serum ionic calcium level (approximately 2 mmol/L) and was able to improve the hemodynamic status without any major adverse reaction.
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ranking = 3701.8859810512
keywords = overdose
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