Cases reported "hypothyroidism"

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1/1286. A focused approach to anemia.

    If all the elements of the complete blood cell count are considered in clinical context, they can provide an invaluable guide to the possible causes of a patient's anemia and the tests needed for definitive diagnosis. Unnecessary tests not only add to the expense of treatment but may result in delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment in some cases. ( info)

2/1286. Coexistence of primary endocrine deficiencies: a unique case of male hypergonadism associated with hypoparathyroidism, hypoadrenocorticism, and hypothyroidism.

    The unique combination of male hypogonadism with hypoparathyroidism, hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and alopecia totalis has been documented in a male patient who has been followed over the past 28 years. In this patient, first seen at the age of six for hypoparathyroidism alone, repeated clinical and laboratory endocrine evaluation detected the sequential development of the additional endocrine deficiencies. The presence of abnormal serum antibodies is consistent with an atuoimmune pathogenesis of this syndrome. ( info)

3/1286. Acute respiratory alkalosis associated with low minute ventilation in a patient with severe hypothyroidism.

    PURPOSE: patients with severe hypothyroidism present unique challenges to anesthesiologists and demonstrate much increased perioperative risks. overall, they display increased sensitivity to anesthetics, higher incidence of perioperative cardiovascular morbidity, increased risks for postoperative ventilatory failure and other physiological derangements. The previously described physiological basis for the increased incidence of postoperative ventilatory failure in hypothyroid patients includes decreased central and peripheral ventilatory responses to hypercarbia and hypoxia, muscle weakness, depressed central respiratory drive, and resultant alveolar hypoventilation. These ventilatory failures are associated most frequently with severe hypoxia and carbon dioxide (CO2) retention. The purpose of this clinical report is to discuss an interesting and unique anesthetic presentation of a patient with severe hypothyroidism. CLINICAL FEATURES: We describe an unique presentation of ventilatory failure in a 58 yr old man with severe hypothyroidism. He had exceedingly low perioperative respiratory rate (3-4 bpm) and minute ventilation volume, and at the same time developed primary acute respiratory alkalosis and associated hypocarbia (P(ET)CO2 approximately 320-22 mmHg). CONCLUSION: Our patient's ventilatory failure was based on unacceptably low minute ventilation and respiratory rate that was unable to sustain adequate oxygenation. His profoundly lowered basal metabolic rate and decreased CO2 production, resulting probably from severe hypothyroidism, may have resulted in development of acute respiratory alkalosis in spite of concurrently diminished minute ventilation. ( info)

4/1286. carpal tunnel syndrome: is it work-related?

    The reported incidence of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome has skyrocketed; however, many cases have an underlying systemic cause. A methodical investigation--including appropriate imaging studies and laboratory testing--can differentiate symptoms that are primarily occupational from those with associated medical illness or obesity. ( info)

5/1286. Recognizing the faces of hypothyroidism.

    physicians may not recognize hypothyroidism if they rely on the stereotypical picture of the disorder. The age of the patient, stage of the disease, and other illnesses or conditions such as pregnancy can change the clinical presentation. The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism are remarkably diverse. Instead of a single picture, physicians need a mental gallery. ( info)

6/1286. Development of primary hypothyroidism with the appearance of blocking-type antibody to thyrotropin receptor in Graves' disease in late pregnancy.

    Spontaneous remission of Graves' disease with a decrease of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) activity is commonly observed in pregnancy. In this article, however, a Graves' patient who developed primary hypothyroidism with an appearance of thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) activity in late pregnancy is reported. A 25-year-old woman presented with clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism with an elevation of 99mTcO4- thyroid uptake (4.7%; normal range, 0.7%-3.0%) and mildly elevated activity of thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII; 30.4%). She was euthyroid with normal TBII (8.0%) and TSAb (126%) before pregnancy, when the patient was taking a 5-mg daily dose of methimazole (MMI). MMI was stopped by the patient when she became pregnant. Subsequently, the patient progressed into primary hypothyroidism with a marked elevation of TBII activity (78.4%) in the third trimester of the pregnancy (at that time, TSAb activity was not detected). TSBAb measured 2 weeks later was detected at the activity of 85.0%. Replacement therapy was initiated with levothyroxine (LT4) (0.05-0.1 mg/day), which was discontinued on the 55th day postpartum because of the onset of mild thyrotoxicosis followed by short-term euthyroid state despite high TSBAb activity. Subsequently, because the patient developed primary hypothyroidism 5 months after delivery, replacement therapy with LT4 (0.1-0.125 mg/day) was readministered. Thus, it is suggested that the development of hypothyroidism with the appearance of TSBAb in Graves' patients can occur even in late pregnancy. ( info)

7/1286. Development of Graves' hyperthyroidism from primary hypothyroidism in a case of thyroid hemiagenesis.

    We report a 42-year-old female with right thyroid hemiagenesis who initially presented with hypothyroidism and then developed hyperthyroidism. The serum titer of thyroid-stimulating antibody was weakly positive in the initial hypothyroid state, and then markedly increased along with the development of hyperthyroidism, while thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody was continuously negative throughout the observation period. Thyroid histology of biopsied specimens during the hypothyroid state demonstrated diffuse thyroiditis with mononuclear cell infiltrations; however, the histology during the hyperthyroid state showed hyperplasia in follicular epithelial cells accompanied by partial lymphocyte infiltration. This is the first case of thyroid hemiagenesis associated with a conversion from primary hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis to hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. ( info)

8/1286. Pituitary deficiency and lack of gonads in an XY pseudohermaphrodite with beta 39/lepore haemoglobinopathy.

    We describe the occurrence of hypothyroidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in an XY pseudohermaphrodite subject affected by beta-thalassemia. The patient, reared as female, diagnosed at 14 months of age as having a beta 39/Lepore hemoglobinopathy, treated with multiple transfusion therapy, was referred at age of 15 years because of delayed puberty. Complete endocrine evaluation showed low levels, both basal and after combined LHRH-TRH and hCG stimuli, of FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), progesterone (P), androstenedione (A), and FT4 levels, and normal PRL, cortisol, 17OHP and ACTH levels. Imaging studies (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, radioisotope scanning and gonadal vessels phlebography) did not show internal genitalia and gonads. karyotype resulted 46,XY. PCR amplification of the SRY gene confirmed the presence of the y chromosome. female genitalia without uterus in a subject with y chromosome SRY gene, and no detectable testes indicate a condition of male pseudohermaphroditism associated with testicular regression. Low gonadotropin and sex steroid levels are suggestive of combined acquired hypothalamic-pituitary and gonadal impairment, due to iron deposition in both organs. We cannot exclude congenital failure of testosterone synthesis and action in this case, because lack of gonads is an unusual finding in thalassemic hypogonadic subjects. ( info)

9/1286. Macro-orchidism in juvenile hypothyroidism.

    A boy, aged 16 years, with absence of development of the secondary sex characteristics, inappropriately large testes for his stage of puberty, and short stature is described. The symptoms were secondary to long-standing prepubertal hypothyroidism. Following therapy with thyroxine, there was a rapid advancement in growth velocity, full development of the secondary sex characteristics, and reduction in the size of the testes. ( info)

10/1286. hypothyroidism presenting as acute cardiac tamponade with viral pericarditis.

    This report describes the case of a young woman who presented to an emergency department with severe abdominal pain and shock. The patient was found to have pericardial tamponade due to a massive pericardial effusion. On further evaluation, the etiology of this effusion was considered to be secondary to hypothyroidism with concominant acute viral pericarditis leading to a fulminant tamponade. The presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of pericardial effusion and tamponade secondary to hypothyroidism and viral pericarditis are discussed. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in conjunction with acute viral pericarditis should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained pericardial effusion and tamponade. ( info)
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