Cases reported "Hypoventilation"

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1/19. Central hypoventilation during quiet sleep in two infants.

    Expired ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), frequency (f), and alveolar PCO2 (PACO2) were examined in six normal infants at 41 to 52 weeks post-conceptional age and in two infants who were apneic at birth. Their response to breathing 5% carbon dioxide in air and to 100% oxygen in quiet sleep were compared to those in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. VE in normal infants was 259 ml/kg/min in REM and 200.2 ml/kg/min in quiet sleep with the difference being due to decreased carbon dioxide production and to decreased dead space. VE increased 34.4 ml/kg/min/mm Hg of PCO2 elevation with 5% carbon dioxide breathing during REM and was not significantly different during quiet sleep. During oxygen breathing VE fell by 32.7% at 30 seconds before increasing again. In the affected infants, VE and PACO2 during REM at 1 and 4 months were normal. At 1 month, during quiet sleep, each infant became apneic and PACO2 rose 9 and 8 mm Hg/min respectively. At this time mechanical ventilation was begun. At 4 months, during quiet sleep, VE was 0.064 and 0.063 ml/kg/min at PACO2 of 66 mm Hg in each infant. The change was due entirely to a decrease in VT to 2.3 and 2.5 ml/kg. At this time 5% carbon dioxide breathing given during normal ventilation in REM produced an abrupt fall in VT to 2.0 and 2.2 ml/kg with no change in frequency. oxygen breathing during REM at one month had no effect but at 4 months produced apnea requiring mechanical ventilation after one minute. The findings suggest that the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is (1) important in initiation of extrauterine ventilation and (2) in sustaining ventilation particularly in quiet sleep. It is not necessary in sustaining ventilation awake or in REM sleep and it represents a balance between the stimulatory and depressant effects of carbon dioxide on the central nervous system.
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2/19. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and Hirschsprung's disease in an extremely preterm infant.

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome with Hirschsprung's disease, also known as Haddad syndrome, is a rare disorder with a variable phenotypic severity. The underlying cause is thought to be an abnormality of neural crest development and/or migration. Surviving neonates can have generalized autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Recent reports have identified mutations in the PHOX2B gene in a significant number of patients with this disorder. diagnosis and management of this disorder in the setting of extreme prematurity is difficult as the manifestations of failure to maintain breathing effort and failure to establish feeds overlap with the complications of prematurity. We describe an infant who had congenital central hypoventilation syndrome with Hirschsprung's disease and was delivered at 26 weeks' gestational age and had total aganglionosis of the bowel, failure to wean from ventilation, and a mutation in the PHOX2B gene.
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3/19. Moebius syndrome with central hypoventilation and brainstem calcification: a case report.

    Moebius syndrome (MS) is described in an infant with central hypoventilation and brainstem calcification. The patient had limb defects and bilateral paralysis of the 6th, 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Mechanical ventilation was continued from birth because of shallow spontaneous respiration. Computed tomography revealed brainstem atrophy and four small calcifications restricted to the dorsal portion of the pons and medulla. Prenatal brainstem injury such as ischaemia may have caused MS and central hypoventilation.
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4/19. Primary alveolar hypoventilation treated with nocturnal electrophrenic respiration.

    A case of primary alveolar hypoventilation is described. Despite characteristic clinical findings, the diagnosis was delayed for 4 years. Alleviation of nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia initially by a rocking bed and subsequently by phrenic nerve stimulation was accompanied by reversal of cor pulmonale and polycythemia. Electrophrenic respiration is an effective form of long-term management in primary alveolar hypoventilation.
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5/19. Management of chronic alveolar hypoventilation with nasal positive pressure breathing.

    Negative pressure ventilation is the most common method of providing assisted ventilation without a tracheostomy. Unfortunately, negative pressure devices have several disadvantages and are not well tolerated by all patients. We present a patient in whom intermittent assisted ventilation was applied successfully by using a nasal mask to provide positive pressure ventilatory support.
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6/19. lung function in diaphragm pacing.

    electric stimulation of the diaphragm via the phrenic nerve to induce ventilation has recently been used for the long-term management of chronic ventilatory insufficiency. Since 1973 three patients with inadequate alveolar ventilation have been treated with diaphragm pacing at the Toronto Western Hospital. Two, who had quadriplegia due to lesions of the spinal cord in the upper cervical region and a severe restrictive ventilatory defect, were treated with continuous diaphragm pacing. The third patient required assisted nocturnal ventilation because of primary alveolar hypoventilation. All three patients tolerated the diaphragm pacing well, and pulmonary function tests showed satisfactory gas exchange with the patients breathing room air. This form of therapy seems to be a practical clinical method of managing chronic ventilatory failure in patients with lesions of the upper cervical cord or primary alveolar hypoventilation.
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7/19. Electrophrenic respiration: report of six cases.

    The development of electrophrenic respiration has permitted freedom from mechanical ventilation for patients who have irreversible respiratory failure in association with high-cervical spinal cord or brainstem lesions. There are three basic criteria for successful diaphragm pacing: (1) the need for long-term mechanical ventilatory assistance, (2) a functionally intact phrenic nerve-diaphragm axis, and (3) chest wall stability. Inability to achieve satisfactory pacing can be due to malfunction of equipment, instability of the chest wall, or inadequate neuromuscular responsiveness. These features of diaphragm pacing are exemplified in a series of six patients. Three achieved independence from mechanical ventilatory assistance with full-time phrenic pacing. In one patient, only limited electrophrenic respiration was achieved, and in another the method was entirely unsuccessful. Although functioning well, pacing systems were removed from the sixth patient because of infection. diaphragm pacing can be a valuable form of respiratory support for carefully selected patients.
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8/19. Central hypoventilation syndrome: experience with bilateral phrenic nerve pacing in 3 neonates.

    Successful long-term phrenic nerve pacing has been reported in adults with acquired central hypoventilation syndrome. This report summarizes our experience with phrenic nerve pacing in 3 infants with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. The electrodes were implanted in the lower thoracic portion of each phrenic nerve. In all patients. bilateral simultaneous pacing was required to maintain an adequate arterial PO2, tidal volume, and minute ventilation during quiet sleep. Case 1 died of problems primarily related to the severe cor pulmonale that had been present before pacemaker insertion; at autopsy, the pacemaker system was intact and there were no significant phrenic nerve abnormalities. Case 2 later developed failure of awake ventilatory control and died because of extensive phrenic nerve damage incurred by 19 days of continuous pacing. Case 3 has received quiet sleep pacemaker support since September 1977 and has been able to maintain normal quiet sleep ventilation in this manner. phrenic nerve pacing can be successful in infants as long as continuous pacing is not required. Bilateral simultaneous pacing appears to be an appropriate alternative to home-based intermittent positive-pressure breathing for long-term management of children with central hypoventilation syndrome.
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9/19. Respiratory dysrhythmia. A new cause of central alveolar hypoventilation.

    An infant developed chronic respiratory failure after aseptic meningoencephalitis at 5 months of age. Neurologic evaluations at 16 and 17 months were normal except for an abnormal pharyngeal stage of swallowing, lower extremity hypotonia, and a mild left hemiparesis. Spontaneous breathing during sleep at 16 months was characterized by alveolar hypoventilation, athetoid truncal movements, and disorganized respiratory muscle activity. At 27 months of age, improvement in sleep-related breathing was accompanied by a change in respiratory pattern characterized by alternating inspiratory and expiratory muscular activation. The findings indicate that disorganized as well as diminished output from the central respiratory pattern generator may result in central alveolar hypoventilation.
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10/19. Respiratory and nonrespiratory effects of doxapram in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    doxapram is a respiratory stimulating drug that affects both peripheral chemoreceptors and medullary respiratory and nonrespiratory neurons. We administered doxapram 60 2 infants with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. In 6 separate trials at a dose range of 0.32 to 2.0 mg per kg of body weight per min, quiet-sleep tidal volume increased from 4.9 /- 1.0 to 8.5 /- 0.9 ml per kg of body weight, minute ventilation increased from 140 /- 38 to 286 /- 31 ml per kg of body weight per min, and alveolar PCO2 decreased from 60 /- 5 to 32 /- 2 mm Hg. In all instances, the maximal quiet-sleep ventilatory response was achieved within 10 min. The ventilatory response to steady-state CO2 breathing was not improved with doxapram. A continuous infusion of doxapram for 5.2 days in one infant successfully maintained normal quiet-sleep ventilation. In both infants, multiple nonrespiratory effects of doxapram occurred; enteral administration was associated only with generalized neuromuscular stimulation, but the 5-day intravenous infusion was also associated with acute hepatotoxicity and a perforated duodenal ulcer. The medullary respiratory neurons in central hypoventilation syndrome may be incapable of responding to doxapram, and the ventilatory responses observed may be due entirely to stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors. Although quiet-sleep ventilation can be successfully maintained with intravenous and enteral administration of doxapram, and tachyphylaxis has not been observed, we have been unable to avoid at least the neuromuscular manifestations of nonrespiratory medullary stimulation.
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