Cases reported "Iatrogenic Disease"

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1/12. diagnosis and management of trauma and iatrogenic induced arteriovenous fistulas in the neck.

    Trauma-induced arteriovenous (av) communications in the cervical region involving the external carotid artery and the jugular vein are exceptionally rare. Moreover, an iatrogenic av fistula between the vertebral artery and the vein after insertion of a venous catheter into the internal jugular vein is described. The discussion includes the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of such rare av fistulas.
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2/12. Iatrogenic main pulmonary artery-left atrial fistula in a child.

    A 14-month-old boy who underwent operation for ventricular septal defect patch closure and debanding of the pulmonary artery presented with arterial desaturation in the early postoperative period. angiography confirmed the echocardiographic findings of hemodynamically significant main pulmonary artery-left atrial fistula. This communication was successfully closed surgically.
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3/12. Iatrogenic left ventricular-right atrial fistula following mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty: diagnosis by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography.

    Acquired left ventricle-to-right atrium communications are a known complication of valvular heart surgery. Previous reports have described the clinical features and diagnosis using cardiac catheterization. We report two cases of acquired left ventricle-to-right atrium fistula following mitral valve replacement. Particular emphasis is placed on the diagnosis using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, obviating the need for cardiac catheterization before repair.
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4/12. Reversed portal vein pulsatility on Doppler ultrasound secondary to an iatrogenic mediastinal haematoma.

    The Doppler ultrasound pattern of reversed pulsatile flow (RPF) of the portal vein (PV) is strongly associated with high atrial pressure. Tricuspid regurgitation is considered to be the main cause of RPF in patients with chronic heart disease, but the precise pathomechanism of this PV flow pattern has not yet been resolved. We describe for the first time a RPF of the PV in a young patient with a mediastinal haematoma after inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery. In this patient, transcutaneous echocardiography demonstrated normal valves without any tricuspid regurgitation as well as normal diameters of the cardiac cavities. The RPF of the PV in this patient resolved spontaneously within 7 days. An increased hepatic outflow resistance with transmission of hepatic artery pulsations across arterioportal communications seems the most likely pathomechanism to explain our finding.
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5/12. Non-operative management of endoscopic iatrogenic haemobilia: case report and review of literature.

    Haemobilia denotes an abnormal communication between a vessel of the splanchnic circulation and the biliary system. patients typically presents with the triad of abdominal pain, upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and jaundice. Common causes for haemobilia are iatrogenic causes secondary to hepatobiliary system instrumentation and trauma. Management of patients with haemodynamic significant haemobilia is aimed at stopping bleeding, maintaining continuous flow of biliary system, and cure of the underlying aetiology. Iatrogenic haemobilia after ERCP polyethylene biliary endoprosthesis placement is extremely uncommon. Herein we present a case of iatrogenic haemobilia triggered by biliary endoprosthesis placement and was successfully managed by non-operative treatment. The management algorithm for a rational approach to haemobilia is discussed.
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6/12. Iatrogenic superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula: ultrasonographic, CT and angiographic features and histological findings of the liver biopsy.

    Iatrogenic superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula is rare. We treated a patient with this problem 6 years after small bowel resection for intestinal obstruction. The symptoms and signs were those of intestinal ischaemia and portal hypertension with an abdominal bruit. ultrasonography and enhanced computerized tomography of the abdomen suggested the presence of superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula, with a dilated portal vein and a communication between the dilated superior mesenteric vein and its artery. The exact location of the fistula was then determined by selective superior mesenteric arteriography. The fistula was ligated in an emergency operation to prevent cardiac or renal failure and to relieve portal hypertension. Liver biopsy showed no cirrhotic changes, but fibrosis was seen around the portal veins. We describe here not only the diagnostic arteriographic findings of superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula, but also the interesting and suggestive ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings. Early correction of such fistulas is recommended to prevent cardiac or liver failure.
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7/12. Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula in infancy.

    Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) in infancy are rare and are usually located at the level of femoral and antecubital vessels. They are generally secondary to multiple diagnostic or therapeutic arterial or venous punctures. The diagnosis is usually easy to make on clinical grounds; however, invasive procedures such as digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be used to locate the fistula. These iatrogenic AVF may present as direct vascular communications or pseudoaneurysms originating in the venous wall. Surgical treatment is the therapy of choice. The case of an infant with an iatrogenic AVF of the femoral vessels is presented.
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8/12. Vertebral arteriovenous fistula following anterior cervical spine surgery. Report of two cases.

    Fistulous communication between the vertebral artery and its surrounding venous plexus is rare. Two cases of vertebral arteriovenous fistula following anterior cervical spine surgery are reported. The anatomic relationships of the vertebral vessels, the radiographic findings, and the various therapeutic approaches to these lesions are discussed.
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9/12. Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas following insertion of central monitoring catheters.

    Iatrogenic vertebral arteriovenous fistulas were first reported in 1963. Since then, 20 additional cases have been reported--all following angiographic procedures. We report herein the first recognized cases of such fistulas resulting from percutaneous internal jugular and subclavian venous catheterizations performed for routine hemodynamic monitoring. The symptoms of late-occurring cervical bruit and thrill were identical to those described previously, although the ability to obliterate the thrill by pressure on the common carotid artery in one patient was inconsistent with other experience. These two patients were treated by direct ligation of the fistulous communication, after careful preoperative localization by angiography. Both patients have had complete disappearance of the symptoms and signs of the fistulas.
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10/12. Acquired left ventricular-right atrial fistula following aortic valve replacement.

    Intracardiac communications produced as a complication of valve replacement can result in left-to-right shunts and a poor surgical result. The successful surgical closure of a left ventricular-right atrial fistula following aortic valve replacement is discussed. The intricate relationships of the membranous interventricular septum, the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valves, and the aortic root predispose to the creation of abnormal intracardiac shunts when aggressive debridement of extensive valvular calcification is performed at the time of valve excision and replacement.
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