Cases reported "Iatrogenic Disease"

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1/36. diagnosis and management of trauma and iatrogenic induced arteriovenous fistulas in the neck.

    Trauma-induced arteriovenous (av) communications in the cervical region involving the external carotid artery and the jugular vein are exceptionally rare. Moreover, an iatrogenic av fistula between the vertebral artery and the vein after insertion of a venous catheter into the internal jugular vein is described. The discussion includes the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of such rare av fistulas.
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keywords = neck
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2/36. Treatment of an iatrogenic petrous carotid artery pseudoaneurysm with a Symbiot covered stent: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Surgery involving the middle ear or the temporal bone may cause an injury to the petrous carotid artery resulting in a pseudoaneurysm. Conventional treatment of such pseudoaneurysms has ranged from carotid occlusion to conservative management. The use of a balloon-expandable stent and/or Guglielmi detachable coils may be effective in a partially healed pseudoaneurysm. This report details the case of an acute petrous carotid pseudoaneurysm after a myringotomy procedure that was effectively treated with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: During a right myringotomy procedure, pulsatile blood was encountered in a 42-year-old woman with a history of repeated ear infections and bilateral middle ear ventilation tube placement. The blood was adequately tamponaded with gauze packing. Computed tomography of the temporal bone demonstrated a dehiscent carotid artery, and cerebral angiography revealed a 6-mm right petrous carotid pseudoaneurysm. INTERVENTION/TECHNIQUE: An 8-French guide catheter was positioned via a transfemoral approach into the cervical right internal carotid artery, and the patient was systemically heparinized. A 4- x 31-mm Symbiot covered stent (boston Scientific/Scimed, Maple Grove, MN) was passed over a Choice PT exchange wire (boston Scientific/Scimed) to cover the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, obliterating the pseudoaneurysm. The patient was given aspirin and clopidogrel after stenting, and ear exploration was possible later the same day. Follow-up computed tomographic angiography performed 6 weeks later verified patency of the stent. CONCLUSION: The use of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent may effectively treat intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms in an acute setting. This treatment allows preservation of the parent artery and immediate treatment by reconstruction of the incompetent arterial wall to prevent potentially life-threatening hemorrhagic complications.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neck
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3/36. Spinal accessory mononeuropathy following posterior fossa decompression surgery.

    Isolated injury of the spinal accessory nerve is a well-recognized complication of surgeries involving the posterior triangle of the neck. The procedures most commonly implicated are lymph node biopsy and carotid endarterectomy. We present a patient with isolated injury to the spinal accessory nerve, localized proximal to the innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which was noted following suboccipital decompression for an arnold-chiari malformation. To our knowledge, this association has not been previously reported.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neck
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4/36. Percutaneous thrombin injection of carotid artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PURPOSE: To report the successful treatment of a carotid artery pseudoaneurysm by percutaneous thrombin injection. CASE REPORT: A 71-year-old man with end-stage renal failure presented with acute left ventricular failure. The right common carotid artery (CCA) was punctured during attempted jugular line insertion, and he developed a large pseudoaneurysm connected to the CCA by a long, narrow neck. Ultrasound-guided compression was unsuccessful, so another technique was attempted. An occlusion balloon was inflated in the CCA at the neck of the aneurysm to avoid distal embolization, and 250 units of human thrombin were injected into the sac percutaneously; thrombosis was instantaneous. There were no procedural complications, and repeat ultrasound at 3 months showed resolution of the hematoma and no residual pseudoaneurysm. There were no neurological complications. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous thrombin injection may be a new and successful method of treating carotid artery pseudoaneurysms.
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keywords = neck
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5/36. hemorrhage from a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: endovascular treatment with a coronary stent-graft.

    PURPOSE: To report a novel case demonstrating the successful endovascular treatment of a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm using a balloon-expandable coronary stent-graft. CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old woman underwent surgical treatment for a Klatskin tumor, but her postoperative course was complicated by serious blood loss. An emergent celiac angiogram through a right transfemoral approach demonstrated a small iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm in the proximal right hepatic artery. A 7-F guiding catheter was positioned at the origin of the celiac trunk, and a Jostent coronary stent-graft mounted on a 2.7-F, 4-mm x 30-mm balloon catheter was successfully placed across the aneurysm neck. The final angiogram demonstrated total exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with preservation of the arterial lumen. The hemodynamic condition of the patient became stable. At 12-month follow-up, duplex scanning confirmed regular right hepatic artery patency and absence of thrombotic tissue or signs of infection around the stent-graft. CONCLUSION: For hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms, endovascular repair using small covered stents may be a viable alternative to transcatheter embolization. The use of coronary instruments facilitates treatment of vascular lesions in small caliber visceral vessels.
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keywords = neck
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6/36. Iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm: US, CT and MRI findings.

    vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm (VAP) is the result of the penetrating neck trauma, chiropractic manipulation, vasculopathies and rarely iatrogenic due to internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization. It should be identified and treated immediately because of its potential risk of rupture. We present a case of a right VAP resulting from jugular vein catheterization, with the Doppler ultrasonography (US), Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Although angiography is a well known gold standard modality, Doppler US, CT and MRI findings can be sufficient to demonstrate VAP.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neck
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7/36. ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. methods: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neck
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8/36. Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided direct percutaneous embolization of a peripheral pseudoaneurysm with n-butyl cyanoacrylate.

    We report the ultrasound-guided direct percutaneous injection of n-butyl cyanoacrylate to embolize an iatrogenic peripheral pseudoaneurysm secondary in a 33-year-old patient undergoing hemodialysis. We protected the parent artery with inflation of an angioplasty balloon across the neck during the cyanoacrylate injection. Complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm was achieved without ischemic complication.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neck
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9/36. Mediastinal and neck hematoma after cardiac catheterization.

    Vascular complications after cardiac catheterization are rare and usually occur at the access sites. However, vessels along the tract of the catheter can also be injured, causing bleeding and hematoma formation. We present a 57-year-old male who underwent cardiac catheterization via the radial approach, later developing neck and mediastinal hematoma, which was managed conservatively. This complication has only been reported once in the English literature.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = neck
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10/36. Conservative medical management of traumatic pharyngoesophageal perforations.

    Traditionally, surgical treatment has been the acceptable management for perforation of the pharyngoesophageal tract secondary to blunt and penetrating trauma. From July 1983 to June 1990, we managed 10 patients with this type of lesion by a conservative medical management approach. Mirror or fiberoptic flexible laryngoscopy was performed in the majority of cases to ascertain the nature of the injury. An esophagogram is very helpful to locate and evaluate the extent of the injury. All patients were treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic therapy and no oral feeding. There were no complications or need for surgical treatment in any of the cases. The head and neck surgeon, in selected cases, should consider the possibility of using conservative management of pharyngoesophageal perforations. This approach has proven in our hands to be relatively safe and cost-effective, resulting in no disability or prolonged hospitalization of our patients. This study involves two institutions (two affiliated hospitals of Case Western Reserve University School of medicine) with different surgeons selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy. It is a retrospective review. No controls were made by random selection of cases treated surgically. These cases, if not properly managed, may lead to fatal outcomes.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neck
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