Cases reported "Iatrogenic Disease"

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1/40. median nerve damage from brachial artery puncture: a case report.

    This report describes a case in which puncture of the brachial artery to obtain a sample for blood-gas analysis resulted in damage to the median nerve with a persisting neuropathy and apparent loss of function. Errors in judgment and contributions to possible negligence included (1) inappropriate choice of sampling site; (2) lack of knowledge of precautions and possible complications; (3) incomplete/inadequate description of optimal procedure in departmental procedure manual; (4) arbitrary selection of the dominant hand.
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2/40. Occlusion of azygos vein via direct percutaneous puncture of innominate vein following cavopulmonary anastomosis.

    A 2-year-10-month-old boy was diagnosed with a complex congenital heart disease: right atrial isomerism, left superior vena cava (LSVC), complete atrioventricular septal defect, secundum type atrial septal defect, transposition of the great arteries with pulmonary atresia, patent ductus arteriosus, absence of a right superior vena cava (RSVC), and dextrocardia. He had received a left Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt at the age of 3 months and a left bidirectional Glenn shunt one year after BT shunt. Progressive cyanosis was noted after the second operation and cardiac catheterization showed a functional Glenn shunt with an engorged azygos vein, which was inadvertently skipped for ligation. Because of the absence of RSVC, transcatheter occlusion of the azygos vein was performed successfully via direct puncture of the innominate vein.
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3/40. Iatrogenic vertebral body compression fracture in a premature infant caused by extreme flexion during positioning for a lumbar puncture.

    We present a case of vertebral body compression fracture that resulted from manual flexion of the spine of a premature infant in preparation for a lumbar puncture. Vertebral body fractures due to abnormal flexion in child abuse have been described. However, such fractures due to lumbar puncture-related positioning have not been reported. We present a pre-term infant who developed an L3 vertebral body compression fracture immediately after lumbar puncture.
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4/40. Iatrogenic meningitis: an increasing role for resistant viridans streptococci? Case report and review of the last 20 years.

    Iatrogenic meningitis following lumbar puncture is a rare event. We present a 52-y-old man who developed symptoms of meningitis within 12 h after spinal anaesthesia. cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew streptococcus salivarius partially resistant to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The patient was successfully treated with ceftriaxone and vancomycin and left the hospital with minor sequelae. A literature review of 60 cases revealed the median age of the patients to be 44 y. The median incubation period was 24 h. Most cases occurred after spinal anaesthesia (n = 27), myelography (n = 20) and diagnostic lumbar puncture (n = 5). Organisms were isolated in 52 cases, and streptococcal species were responsible for 33 (63%) of them. An upward trend in resistance of S. viridans isolates is cause for concern and may change empirical treatment strategies. death was reported in 3 cases (5%) and was associated with pseudomonas and staphylococcal isolates. The recognition of this entity and the importance of proper infection control measures are underlined.
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5/40. Delayed recognition of inadvertent gut injury during laparoscopy.

    Bowel injuries, which may occur as a result of the insertion of an insufflation needle or trocar, are a rare complication of laparoscopy. They are generally recognized either immediately or a few days after the operation. We present a case of laparoscopic perforation of the small intestine in a patient who had undergone previous pelvic surgery for an ovarian carcinoma. On ultrasound (US), the patient had multiple hepatic lesions resembling hepatic metastases. To confirm the diagnosis, laparoscopy with guided liver biopsy was performed on the grounds that this procedure is regarded as more appropriate than CT- or US-guided hepatic biopsy. Veress needle and trocar insertion were performed at a proper distance from the abdominal scar. However, the abdominal cavity was not visible after the trocar's insertion due to the unexpected presence of adhesions. This precluded the continuation of the procedure. In the following days, the patient experienced only mild abdominal discomfort. However, 2 weeks after laparoscopy, the patient presented signs of peritoneal reaction and underwent laparotomy. Adhesion-fixing jejunal loops to the anterior abdominal wall were discovered at the site of the trocar puncture. Moreover, two hiatuses of these loops were observed and sutured. The follow-up was uneventful. As this case illustrates, laparoscopic bowel injuries remain an unpredictable event. Recognition of this complication may occur several days after the procedure, as the tamponating effect of adhesions on the jejunal hiatus delays the involvement of the peritoneum.
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6/40. Coagulopathy induced spinal intradural extramedullary haematoma: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    In a retrospective review of patients operated for coagulopathy induced spinal intradural-extramedullary haematoma the literature regarding coagulopathy induced spinal haemorrhage is reviewed and the etiology of these rare spinal subdural and subarachnoid haemorrhages is discussed. Spinal intradural haematomas are usually related to trauma or a previous lumbar puncture. A review of the literature revealed only a handful cases of spinal intradural haemorrhages occurring secondary to an underlying haematological disorder or an iatrogenic coagulopathy. Coagulopathy induced spinal haemorrhage should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute paraparesis in patients with co-existent haematological disorders or undergoing anticoagulation therapy. Due to the often mixed subdural and subarachnoid bleeding patterns we have termed this entity spinal intradural-extramedullary haematoma.
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7/40. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation for ureteral lesion secondary to transvaginal ultrasonography for oocyte retrieval.

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular puncture for oocyte retrieval is a highly efficient and minimally invasive method for assisted reproductive techniques. Complications related to this procedure are rare. We report the case of a ureteral stricture secondary to ultrasound-guided follicular puncture for oocyte retrieval that was corrected by a laparoscopic approach. This approach can minimize postoperative pain, the length of hospitalization, and the period of convalescence and should be considered a minimally invasive option in the management of this rare complication of oocyte retrieval.
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keywords = puncture
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8/40. Reversed portal vein pulsatility on Doppler ultrasound secondary to an iatrogenic mediastinal haematoma.

    The Doppler ultrasound pattern of reversed pulsatile flow (RPF) of the portal vein (PV) is strongly associated with high atrial pressure. Tricuspid regurgitation is considered to be the main cause of RPF in patients with chronic heart disease, but the precise pathomechanism of this PV flow pattern has not yet been resolved. We describe for the first time a RPF of the PV in a young patient with a mediastinal haematoma after inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery. In this patient, transcutaneous echocardiography demonstrated normal valves without any tricuspid regurgitation as well as normal diameters of the cardiac cavities. The RPF of the PV in this patient resolved spontaneously within 7 days. An increased hepatic outflow resistance with transmission of hepatic artery pulsations across arterioportal communications seems the most likely pathomechanism to explain our finding.
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9/40. Abducens palsy after lumbar puncture.

    OBJECTIVE: We report the case of a 43-year-old patient with neuralgic shoulder amyotrophy who developed abducens palsy on the left 4 days after diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP), which recovered completely within 4 months. RESULTS: Side effects after spinal tap are due to prolonged spinal fluid leakage and delayed closure of a dural defect causing intracranial hypotension. Downward 'sagging' of the brain and traction on cranial nerves may lead to abducens palsy. This case and a review of the literature illustrate the higher risk with the use of large-size traumatic needles in LP for cranial sixth nerve palsies. CONCLUSION: The presented case emphasizes the use of atraumatic small-size needles for lumbar puncture.
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10/40. Percutaneous thrombin injection of carotid artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PURPOSE: To report the successful treatment of a carotid artery pseudoaneurysm by percutaneous thrombin injection. CASE REPORT: A 71-year-old man with end-stage renal failure presented with acute left ventricular failure. The right common carotid artery (CCA) was punctured during attempted jugular line insertion, and he developed a large pseudoaneurysm connected to the CCA by a long, narrow neck. Ultrasound-guided compression was unsuccessful, so another technique was attempted. An occlusion balloon was inflated in the CCA at the neck of the aneurysm to avoid distal embolization, and 250 units of human thrombin were injected into the sac percutaneously; thrombosis was instantaneous. There were no procedural complications, and repeat ultrasound at 3 months showed resolution of the hematoma and no residual pseudoaneurysm. There were no neurological complications. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous thrombin injection may be a new and successful method of treating carotid artery pseudoaneurysms.
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