Cases reported "Ichthyosis, Lamellar"

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1/59. prenatal diagnosis of harlequin ichthyosis by the examination of keratinized hair canals and amniotic fluid cells at 19 weeks' estimated gestational age.

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is an extremely severe and usually fatal congenital keratinization disorder whose responsible genes have not yet been identified. For prenatal diagnosis, the fetal skin biopsy is the only available method and has been usually performed at 21 to 22 weeks' estimated gestational age (wEGA). hair canal keratinization is thought to occur around 15 wEGA prior to the interfollicular keratinization, and characteristic abnormalities of HI are known to be expressed more strongly in the hair canal. Thus, we expected the fetal skin specimen at 19 wEGA to have sufficient information for prenatal diagnosis. Fetal skin biopsy was undertaken from a fetus at risk at 19 wEGA. Electron microscopy demonstrated abnormal vacuoles in keratinized cells and malformation of lamellar granules in the hair canal. Clumps of aberrantly keratinized cells containing lipid droplets were seen in the amniotic fluid. The fetus was diagnosed as affected. The abortus at 21 wEGA demonstrated HI phenotype clinically. The present results indicate that the prenatal diagnosis of HI is possible at 19 wEGA, an earlier stage of gestation than previously reported, by the ultrastructural observation of the hair canal and the amniotic fluid cells, but not the interfollicular epidermis, of fetuses at risk. ( info)

2/59. Identification of mutations in the transglutaminase 1 gene in lamellar ichthyosis.

    Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cornification. Mutations in the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) have been identified in several families with this disorder. We analyzed two unrelated families with offspring affected with LI. family 1 included affected monozygotic twins, in which a homozygous G-to-T transversion was identified in exon 6 at amino acid residue R315L. This mutation was also identified in the unaffected mother. In family 2, which consisted of one affected infant, a T-to-G transversion in exon 8 resulted in a change of phenylalanine to valine, F400V, and a C-to-T transition in exon 4 resulted in a change of proline to leucine, P248L. In this family, the mutation F400V was found in the unaffected father, and the mutation P248L was identified in the unaffected mother. These findings extend the growing body of literature documenting mutations in the TGM1 gene as the molecular basis of certain cases of lamellar ichthyosis. ( info)

3/59. Harlequin fetus: a case report.

    We report a case of harlequin fetus. This very rare cutaneous malformation is a severe form of congenital ichthyosis. This disorder is due to an inborn error of epidermal keratinization. Malformations of ears, nose, and hypoplasia of fingers or nails are seen. This affection is most often lethal. ( info)

4/59. Koraxitrachitic syndrome: a syndromic form of self-healing collodion baby with residual dappled atrophy of the derma.

    We report on a child with a generalized skin disorder associated with other minor anomalies. At birth, the child presented as a collodion baby, with patchy erythema, generalized irregular dermal atrophy, alopecia, absent eyelashes and eyebrows, and conjunctival pannus. He also had hypertelorism, prominent nasal root, large mouth, micrognathia, brachydactyly, syndactyly involving all interdigital spaces, and camptodactyly of fingers III-V. The hyperkeratotic membrane thinned progressively, leaving a mottled reticulated skin atrophy, with patchy areas of yellowish hyperpigmentation and papyraceous areas. hair and nails were dystrophic. Mental development was borderline normal. The histological hallmarks of the skin manifestations combined orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and marked atrophy of the dermis. The dermal extracellular matrix was immature, and factor xiii-a positive dendrocytes were rare and globular rather than dendritic. We frame as a hypothesis that the disease is due to or associated with a defect in maturation of a subset of dermal dendrocytes during fetal life. This entity may be designed as the koraxitrachitic syndrome (kappaomicronrhoalphaxi:grapnel- taurhoalphachiiotatauepsilonsigma: roughness) copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ( info)

5/59. Topical N-acetylcysteine for lamellar ichthyosis.

    The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine has an antiproliferative effect on a culture of human keratinocytes. We report a patient with lamellar ichthyosis satisfactorily treated with topical N-acetylcysteine. ( info)

6/59. Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma: particulate staining pattern of TGK.

    A case of late onset non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE) was studied. This patient was not born as a collodion baby and did not have skin abnormalities until 9-10 years of age. She gradually developed erythroderma and fine scales, callosities of her feet, and a mild ectropion. Since recent work has revealed that in the majority of CIE patients, transglutaminase (TGK) is distributed in the cytoplasm of granular cells and horny cells (11), TGK was studied in our case. It was found that TGK was distributed along the cell periphery of horny cells and also in the cytoplasm of granular cells. In the control skins, TGK was stained along the cell periphery of horny cells and granular cells. The marginal band formation was normal. Involucrine and loricrin, the building materials of the marginal band whose-cross-linking is mediated by TGK, were normally stained in the upper epidermis. Cytoplasmic TGK of granular cells and normal development of the marginal band may serve as a helpful diagnostic marker of CIE, particularly because the often confusing collodion baby of lamellar ichthyosis may lack TGK staining and the marginal band altogether. ( info)

7/59. etretinate in the management of harlequin siblings.

    Harlequin fetus is the severe form of congenital ichthyosis. There are very few reports of babies with this condition surviving the first few weeks of life. We treated two siblings who lived for 22 months and six weeks respectively. We started treatment with oral etretinate every early in their lives and achieved good improvement in the skin condition of these babies. ( info)

8/59. Lamellar ichthyosis: response to etretinate with transglutaminase 1 recovery.

    We studied a case of typical lamellar ichthyosis before and after etretinate treatment for the expression of transglutaminase 1 (TGK) and the presence or absence of the marginal band. Before the treatment, TGK was undetectable, although two other components of the marginal band, loricrin and involucrin, were detected by immunostaining in a normal pattern. The marginal band of the corneocytes was either thin and irregular or completely absent by electron microscopic study. After therapy with etretinate, 50 mg/day, the patient' s skin improved, and biopsies were taken at 4 and 8 months. Transglutaminase 1 became detectable by immunostaining. The marginal band was still absent in most corneocytes. ( info)

9/59. Three unusual siblings with Harlequin icthyosis in an Indian family.

    Harlequin fetuses occurring as three siblings in an Indian family are described here. All three were preterm, low birth weight, and did not survive.There was no history of consanguinous marriage in the parents or in the family. Thus autosomal recessive inheritance appears to be a remote possibility, although not impossible or, as recently described, these recurrent harlequin fetuses could be the result of new dominant mutations with parental mosaicism. ( info)

10/59. Non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma associated with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma (NBIE) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by generalized erythema and scaling. Two brothers with NBIE and retinitis pigmentosa are reported. One of them also had a marfanoid habitus, thoracic kyphosis, and arachnodactyly, and was heterozygous for alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. A third brother had skin involvement, but normal vision. retinitis pigmentosa has been described in association with NBIE as part of Rud syndrome, which is no longer considered a separate entity. Major diagnostic features of Rud syndrome, such as hypogonadism, mental retardation, and epilepsy were absent in this family. The association of NBIE with retinitis pigmentosa in this family seems distinct from any previously described, currently recognized syndrome. ( info)
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