Cases reported "Ichthyosis, X-Linked"

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1/42. Ocular findings in ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia syndrome.

    ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia (IFAP) are typical features of a rare neuroichthyosis termed IFAP syndrome. We demonstrate the ultrastructural findings of the eyes from a 33-year-old patient with IFAP syndrome. Clinically, eyebrows and eyelashes were absent from birth, and photophobia was noted at the age of 1 year. The globes measured 28 and 29 mm, respectively, and both eyes showed a posterior staphyloma. Histopathologically, bilateral centrally located subepithelial avascular corneal scarring with secondary corneal amyloid deposition was found. In addition to already described ocular abnormalities in IFAP syndrome we demonstrate ultrastructural anomalies of desmosomes and tonofilaments in corneal epithelium; defects of basement membrane, Bowman layer, and anchoring fibrils; secondary corneal amyloid deposition; and keratocyte degeneration. A defective tear film, recurrent atopic keratoconjunctival inflammations, or a primary anomaly of corneal epithelial adhesion are potential causes for the corneal defects. photophobia is most likely due to corneal abnormalities. ( info)

2/42. An atypical contiguous gene syndrome: molecular studies in a family with X-linked Kallmann's syndrome and X-linked ichthyosis.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Kallmann's syndrome (KS) is characterized by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in association with anosmia or hyposmia. This entity can be associated with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) in a contiguous gene syndrome. Genetic defects have been demonstrated on the Xp22.3 region explaining the presence of one or both entities in affected individuals. In this report we describe the molecular findings in four patients, pertaining to a three generation family, with KS which was associated with XLI in two of them. MEASUREMENTS: Enzymatic activity of steroid sulphatase was measured in leucocytes. polymerase chain reaction of the 14 exons of the Kallmann gene (KAL) and of the 5' and 3' extremes of the steroid sulphatase gene was performed in genomic dna. PCR products of the 14 exons of the KAL gene were purified and sequenced. RESULTS: Absence of steroid sulphatase activity and a complete deletion of the STS gene were demonstrated in both patients with XLI. In all subjects, the 14 KAL gene exons amplified in a normal fashion; no mutation was documented after sequencing all exons. CONCLUSIONS: Although it has been proposed recently that the X-linked form of the disease accounts for the minority of patients with Kallman's syndrome, the pedigree chart of this family demonstrates this inheritance pattern. Various possibilities are mentioned in order to explain the absence of mutation in the KAL gene. The coexistence, in this family, of Kallman's syndrome individuals and patients with Kallman's syndrome and X-linked ichthyosis is discussed. ( info)

3/42. Linear lesions reflecting lyonization in women heterozygous for IFAP syndrome (ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia).

    A diagnosis of IFAP (ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia) syndrome was established in a 1-year-old boy with congenital hairlessness, generalized ichthyotic skin changes with follicular hyperkeratoses, and photophobia. IFAP syndrome is considered to be an X-linked recessive trait. The phenotype present in female carriers has so far not been delineated. A 2-year-old sister had atrophoderma and ichthyotic skin lesions arranged in a linear pattern and a large noncicatrical bald patch on her scalp. Similarly, the mother had linear lesions of scaling and atrophy as well as circumscribed hairless areas involving the scalp, the axillary region, and the lower legs. sweat testing by means of iodine starch-reaction visualized hypohidrotic linear lesions corresponding to the areas of hyperkeratosis and atrophy. In both mother and daughter the lesions followed the lines of Blaschko, whereas the boy was diffusely affected. family history showed that the boy's maternal uncle who had died at age 1 year was likewise affected with the same disorder. Moreover, the maternal grandmother had reportedly bald patches on her scalp and very dry skin. This is the first report to document linear skin lesions visualizing lyonization in women heterozygous for IFAP syndrome. ( info)

4/42. Submicroscopic Xpter deletion in a boy with growth and mental retardation caused by a familial t(X;14).

    In a 3-year-old boy with short stature, developmental delay, and dry skin, steroid sulphatase deficiency and a submicroscopic terminal deletion of Xp were found. Except for the short stature, no major clinical signs of X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata could be observed. His mother had lowered steroid sulphatase activity compatible with carriership for X-linked ichthyosis and a submicroscopic translocation (X;14)(p22.31;p11.1). This finding combined with a normal amplification of exons 1, 5, and 10 of the STS gene from propositus' dna suggested a breakpoint upstream of the STS gene. The submicroscopic maternal translocation had important implications for genetic counseling. This case report illustrates that contiguous gene syndrome related to the Xpter region may have an atypical clinical presentation and the usefulness of combined clinical, biochemical, molecular, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. ( info)

5/42. child syndrome caused by deficiency of 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta8, delta7-isomerase.

    child (congenital hemidysplasia, ichthyosis, and limb defects) syndrome is a rare, usually sporadic disorder associated with unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform skin lesions, limb defects, punctate calcifications of cartilaginous structures, and visceral anomalies. child syndrome shares some manifestations with X-linked dominant Conradi-Hunermann syndrome (CDPX2), although the skeletal defects and skin lesions in CDPX2 are bilateral and asymmetric. Because CDPX2 patients have abnormal 8-dehydrosterol metabolism caused by mutations in 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta8,delta7-isomerase, we measured plasma sterols in a patient with child syndrome and found levels of 8-dehydrocholesterol and 8(9)-cholestenol increased to the same degree as in CDPX2 patients. Subsequently, we identified a nonsense mutation in exon 3 of the patient's 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta8,delta7-isomerase gene. We speculate that at least some cases of child syndrome are allelic with CDPX2 caused by 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta8,delta7-isomerase deficiency. ( info)

6/42. poland's syndrome and recessive X-linked ichthyosis in two brothers.

    poland's syndrome consists of unilateral congenital absence of the pectoralis major muscle with a variable degree of ipsilateral upper limb deformity. The aetiology of poland's syndrome is unknown, although an inherited tendency to develop a compromised embryonic vascular supply in the affected areas has been suggested. The majority of reported cases are sporadic, and in only a few instances is there a familial incidence. We describe the occurrence of poland's syndrome in two brothers who also had recessive X-linked ichthyosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of such an association. ( info)

7/42. Corneal manifestations of X-linked ichthyosis in two brothers.

    PURPOSE: To report the unusual manifestation of X-linked ichthyosis in two brothers. methods: Leukocyte separation and sterylsulfatase assay are performed to show the deficiency of sterylsulfatase. RESULTS: Two brothers presented in our clinic with cutaneous alterations consistent with X-linked ichthyosis. Ocular examination disclosed fine, flour-like, punctate, evenly, and diffusely distributed opacities of the posterior corneal stroma, close to descemet membrane in both patients. In one patient, superficial, small, granular opacities were detected. They were gray in color and seemed to involve the epithelium and the subepithelial and anterior stromal layers. In both patients, the deficiency of sterylsulfatase could be shown and confirmed the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: flour-like opacities in the posterior stroma have been shown to be a common manifestation of X-linked ichthyosis. Though the underlying biochemical defect in X-linked ichthyosis has been discovered, the question of how these opacities develop is still a subject of debate. Subepithelial stromal keratopathies or epithelial irregularities are uncommon and are rarely described in the literature. The superficial corneal changes seen in one of our patients are unusual and are not similar to those reported by other authors. ( info)

8/42. IFAP syndrome "plus" seizures, mental retardation, and callosal hypoplasia.

    ichthyosis follicularis, congenital alopecia, and photophobia are typical features of a rare X-linked recessive disorder termed ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia syndrome. A 3-year-old male with these findings and severe growth failure, mental retardation, generalized seizures, vascularizing keratitis, nail anomalies, inguinal hernia, and a normal chromosome constitution is presented. Two maternal male relatives were affected by the same condition. magnetic resonance imaging revealed corpus callosum hypoplasia not described at present. Syndromes with alopecia, seizures, and mental retardation are analyzed on the basis of genetic and clinical results. ( info)

9/42. Carrier identification by FISH analysis in isolated cases of X-linked ichthyosis.

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is an inborn error of metabolism due to steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency. STS assay and FISH are useful in diagnosing carrier status of XLI. Biochemical analysis appears to indicate that most sporadic cases are inherited. Since this method does not seem to be completely reliable in recognizing XLI-carriers, the aim of the present study was to corroborate by FISH whether or not most sporadic cases of XLI had de novo mutations. XLI patients were classified through STS assay and PCR amplification of 5'-3' ends of the STS gene. XLI patients had undetectable levels of STS activity and complete deletion of the STS gene. patients' mothers were studied through STS assay and FISH. Nine out of 12 mothers presented an STS activity compatible with XLI-carrier state. These mothers also had only one copy of the STS gene, indicating that they carry the primary gene defect. One mother had normal STS activity but only one copy of the STS gene. This data corroborated that most sporadic cases do not represent de novo mutations, and that FISH must be included in the analysis of mothers of sporadic cases when they present with normal STS activity, in order to correctly diagnose the XLI carrier state. ( info)

10/42. ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome in two unrelated female patients.

    The IFAP syndrome is characterized by the congenital onset of ichthyosis follicularis, absence of hair, and photophobia. A limited number of patients with the disorder have been described, and X-linked recessive inheritance has been proposed. Two unrelated female patients with a complete IFAP syndrome are reported. Both patients show a diffuse distribution of the disorder without linear arrangement. Because the suggested X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance is unlikely in these patients, a different way of transmission or, alternatively, genetic heterogeneity of the disorder has to be considered. ( info)
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