Cases reported "Immersion Foot"

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1/8. replantation of an avulsive amputation of a foot after recovering the foot from the sea.

    A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery. ( info)

2/8. An unusual presentation of immersion foot.

    We report a case of "green foot" in a child with a plaster cast applied for a fractured metatarsal who subsequently re-presented with circulatory compromise. The foot was green and smelly and profuse pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured. The infection cleared with simple exposure to air. Perhaps this diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with circulatory compromise in a cast as severe infection can result in amputation. ( info)

3/8. Trench foot following a collapse: assessment of the feet is essential in the elderly.

    Elderly patients commonly present to hospital following a collapse and period of distressing immobilisation on the floor. We present a case of bilateral trench foot in such a patient with no prior peripheral vascular disease. Examination of the feet is mandatory for early detection of this rare condition in the collapsed elderly patient. ( info)

4/8. immersion foot. A problem of the homeless in the 1990s.

    The syndrome of immersion foot is being seen with increasing frequency among the homeless population. It represents the effects of injury by water absorption in the stratum corneum of the skin of the feet. The taxonomy of this disorder is confusing and the many colorful pseudonyms should probably be dropped in favor of a simple classification based on the temperature of the water and the duration of exposure. When uncomplicated by infection or ischemic injury, immersion foot will quickly resolve with conservative measures only. More complicated cases may require antibiotics and surgical treatment. This syndrome may be exacerbated by disturbances of cognition, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, or the use of tobacco or vasoconstrictor drugs such as cocaine. A major contributing factor seems to be lack of shelter in the homeless population. attention to foot care problems among the homeless and education concerning preventive measures are incumbent on physicians who care for the indigent. ( info)

5/8. Cold-induced peripheral nerve damage: involvement of touch receptors of the foot.

    A 31-year-old male developed paresthesia and numbness of mainly the right foot following exposure to nonfreezing temperatures under moist conditions over a period of 1 week. The symptoms gradually improved over several months. When seen for electrophysiological studies 6 months after the injury, there was no sensory loss on clinical examination, although he continued to complain of distal numbness of the right foot. The right extensor digitorum brevis muscle was atrophic, and the distal motor latency in the peroneal nerve was prolonged. Conduction studies of the right sural nerve showed a predominantly distal diminution of the SAP evoked by electrical stimulation at the dorsum pedis. action potentials evoked by tactile stimulation of pacinian corpuscles showed a prolonged latency on the symptomatic side, suggesting that the most pronounced pathological changes in immersion injury may be localized to the very distal portion of the nerve at the nerve fiber-receptor junction. ( info)

6/8. Recent cases of trench foot.

    Two cases of cold injury to the lower extremities, 'trench foot', are presented. The management is essentially conservative, but in cases of severe damage, particularly in elderly people, amputation must be advised. ( info)

7/8. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis. ( info)

8/8. Neuropathy in non-freezing cold injury (trench foot).

    Non-freezing cold injury (trench foot) is characterized, in severe cases, by peripheral nerve damage and tissue necrosis. Controversy exists regarding the susceptibility of nerve fibre populations to injury as well as the mechanism of injury. Clinical and histological studies (n = 2) were conducted in a 40-year-old man with severe non-freezing cold injury in both feet. Clinical sensory tests, including two-point discrimination and pressure, vibration and thermal thresholds, indicated damage to large and small diameter nerves. On immunohistochemical assessment, terminal cutaneous nerve fibres within the plantar skin stained much less than in a normal control whereas staining to von willebrand factor pointed to increased vascularity in all areas. The results indicate that all nerve populations (myelinated and unmyelinated) were damaged, possibly in a cycle of ischaemia and reperfusion. ( info)

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