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1/314. Epstein-Barr virus-associated leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid in a child with congenital immunodeficiency: a case report.

    We report an unusual case of multifocal leiomyosarcoma involving the thyroid gland, liver, and right lung in a child with congenital immunodeficiency disease. The smooth muscle nature of these neoplasms was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic studies. in situ hybridization showed large amounts of Epstein-Barr virus messenger rna within the tumor cells. Although Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors have been reported in children with AIDS and after organ transplantation, we are unaware of any case report in congenital immunodeficiency disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = congenita
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2/314. Persistent Sweet's syndrome occurring in a child with a primary immunodeficiency.

    Sweet's syndrome (SS) occurs most commonly in association with inflammatory or neoplastic disorders. Only rarely has it been associated with immunodeficiency disorders. We describe a child with a T-cell immunodeficiency who had a persistent neutrophilic dermatosis that was histologically and clinically consistent with SS. SS associated with immunodeficiencies may occur as a reaction to an underlying infection or a defect in immunoregulation. Such patients, however, may not be able to produce the classic fever and neutrophilia associated with SS. They may fail to respond to standard treatment for SS and may suffer a prolonged and persistent course.
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ranking = 0.25017941015892
keywords = defect
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3/314. Combined immunodeficiency associated with increased apoptosis of lymphocytes and radiosensitivity fibroblasts.

    Severe immunodeficiency characterized by lymphopenia was found in two siblings, one of whom was examined in detail. The calcium flux, pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins, and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and proliferation in response to mitogens suggested that the peripheral blood T cells activated normally. The peripheral blood T cells were shown to have an activated phenotype with increased expression of CD45RO and CD95/Fas. Increased spontaneous apoptosis occurred in unstimulated lymphocyte cultures. The elevated apoptosis was not due to alterations in expression or to mutations in Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), or Flip, nor could the spontaneous apoptosis be prevented by blocking Fas, suggesting that it was independent of Fas signaling. This is the first inherited combined immunodeficiency associated with impaired lymphocyte survival. fibroblasts derived from the patient showed appreciable radiosensitivity in clonal assays, but apoptosis was not elevated. Our results show that the fibroblasts represent a new radiosensitive phenotype not associated with cell cycle checkpoint defects, V(D)J recombination defects, or elevated chromosome breakage. We suggest that the affected gene plays a role in an undetermined damage response mechanism that results in elevated spontaneous apoptosis in lymphoid cells and radiosensitivity in fibroblasts.
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ranking = 0.50035882031785
keywords = defect
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4/314. Radiologic changes in infancy in McKusick cartilage hair hypoplasia.

    cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), or metaphyseal dysplasia McKusick type, classically comprises short stature and scant fine hair. In this skeletal dysplasia there is a high incidence of immune deficiency and hirschsprung disease, as well as a higher rate of malignancy. Clinical findings may be subtle in young children, and radiographic changes may be elusive. We present four children below age 2 in whom the clinical diagnosis of CHH was confirmed radiographically. We emphasize radiologically and clinically discernable anterior angulation of the entire sternum, a sign not previously described in this dysplasia.
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ranking = 21.257203998935
keywords = dysplasia
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5/314. Further characterization of memory T cells existing in a case of CD8 deficiency.

    CD8 deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect of ZAP-70, which plays a pivotal role in T cell activation. We previously reported the existence of memory phenotype-CD4 T cells in a case of CD8 deficiency, which demonstrates that activation signals through ZAP-70 are not essential to the phenotypic conversion of T cells from "naive" to "memory." In this study, we further characterized CD45RO T cells in a CD8 deficient patient. We showed that the patient's CD45RO T cell population had a wide variety of T cell receptor Vbeta-chain gene usage, and contained few clonally expanded T cells, while many clonally expanded T cells were present in the memory T cell population of age-matched healthy children. These results suggest that various kinds of antigens were involved in the differentiation of the patient's T cells, and that the differentiation into memory T cells was not accompanied by profound T cell proliferation. Moreover, our findings confirmed that the patient's CD45RO CD4 T cells had acquired effector-cytokine producing ability, indicating that there exists an alternative activation pathway which is independent of ZAP-70 for the acquisition of effector-cytokine producing ability.
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ranking = 0.25017941015892
keywords = defect
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6/314. A transcriptional defect underlies B lymphocyte dysfunction in a patient diagnosed with non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.

    To establish the underlying cause of hyper-IgM syndrome in one female patient, B cell function was examined in response to CD40- and IL-4-mediated pathways. When CD40-induced functional responses were measured in unfractionated B cells, CD80 up-regulation, de novo Cmu-Cgamma recombination, and Igamma transcription were all found to be relatively unaffected. However, CD40- and IL-4-mediated CD23 up-regulation and VDJ-Cgamma transcription were clearly diminished compared to control cells. IL-4-induced CD23 expression was measurably reduced in the CD20- population as well. These results suggested that the patient's defect is positioned downstream of CD40 contact and affects both CD40- and IL-4 signal transduction pathways. Further analysis of B cell function in CD19 B cells revealed a clear B cell defect with respect to Igamma and mature VDJ-Cgamma transcription and IgG expression. However, under the same conditions Iepsilon transcription was relatively normal. Partial restoration of B cell function occurred if PBMC or CD19 B cells were cultured in vitro in the presence of CD154 plus IL-4. Because addition of IL-4 to cocultures containing activated T cells failed to induce B cells to undergo differentiation, the ability of the patient's B cells to acquire a responsive phenotype correlated with receiving a sustained signal through CD40. These findings support a model in which the patient expresses an intrinsic defect that is manifested in the failure of specific genes to become transcriptionally active in response to either CD154 or IL-4 and results in a functionally unresponsive B cell phenotype.
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ranking = 1.7512558711125
keywords = defect
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7/314. Human neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an inhibitory Rac2 mutation.

    A 5-week-old male infant presented with severe bacterial infections and poor wound healing, suggesting a neutrophil defect. neutrophils from this patient exhibited decreased chemotaxis, polarization, azurophilic granule secretion, and superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production but had normal expression and up-regulation of CD11b. Rac2, which constitutes >96% of the Rac in neutrophils, is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that regulates the actin cytoskeleton and O(2)(-) production. Western blot analysis of lysates from patient neutrophils demonstrated decreased levels of Rac2 protein. Addition of recombinant Rac to extracts of the patient neutrophils reconstituted O(2)(-) production in an in vitro assay system. Molecular analysis identified a point mutation in one allele of the Rac2 gene resulting in the substitution of Asp57 by an Asn (Rac2(D57N)). Asp57 is invariant in all defined gtp-binding proteins. Rac2(D57N) binds GDP but not GTP and inhibits oxidase activation and O(2)(-) production in vitro. These data represent the description of an inhibitory mutation in a member of the Rho family of GTPases associated with a human immunodeficiency syndrome.
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ranking = 0.25017941015892
keywords = defect
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8/314. Familial dysequilibrium-diplegia with T-lymphocyte deficiency.

    A second family is described with a combination of defective thymus-dependent immunity and cerebral palsy. The cerebral palsy comprised nonprogressive dysequilibrium and mild spastic diplegia without limb ataxia. This genetic entity of presumed autosomal recessive inheritance is clearly distinguished from ataxia-telangiectasia. Immunological abnormalities should be sought in other familial or unexplained cerebral palsy syndromes.
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ranking = 0.25017941015892
keywords = defect
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9/314. Strong alpha beta and gamma delta TCR response in a patient with disseminated mycobacterium avium infection and lack of NK cells and monocytopenia.

    Infection with atypical mycobacteria occurs mainly in patients with a compromised cellular immune system, in particular in those with a defective T cell or monocyte function. Here we analyzed the specific immune response of an adolescent hiv-negative patient with disseminated mycobacterium avium infection and fatal varizella zoster virus infection. The patient presented with dysplastic hematopoesis of all cell lineage's and a bicytopenia of erythrocytes and leukocytes, but a hematological malignancy could not be found. We found a peripheral lymphopenia and monocytopenia, as well as a lack of NK-cells and B-cells. lymphocytes consisted of 95% T cells, which contained up to 40% of TCR gammadelta CD4-CD8-T-cells (mainly TCR gamma9delta2), few monocytes and B-cells. Approximately 50% of CD3 T-cells showed a CD57 NK-like phenotype. Functional analysis of PBMC revealed a good antigen-specific T cell function if antigen-presenting cells were supplemented from a HLA-matched donor. Moreover, a strong M. avium specific cytotoxicity mediated by TCR alphabeta T-cells could be found in vitro and even ex vivo. In contrast, NK-killing was absent. No evidence for a defect in IL-12 or IFN-gamma production and signaling were found. The data indicate that a strong alphabeta and gammadelta T cell immunity tries to compensate for a deficient monocyte and NK cell function in this patient.
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ranking = 0.50035882031785
keywords = defect
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10/314. Heterogeneity of lymphocyte subpopulations in severe combined immunodeficiency. Evidence against a stem cell defect.

    Surface markers typical of T and B lymphocytes were present on varying proportions of peripheral blood lymphocytes from three infants with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Despite this, functions mediated by T and B cells were either absent or very minimal in all three, including cell-mediated responses in vivo; the in vitro proliferative response to mitogens, allogeneic cells, or antigens; effector cell function in lymphocyte-antibody lymphocytolytic interaction assays; and in vitro synthesis of IgG, IgA, and IgM. In contrast, mononuclear cells from one of the infants were tested and found capable of lysing both human and chicken antibody-coated erythrocyte targets normally. Co-cultivation experiments with unrelated normal control lymphocytes failed to demonstrate suppressor cell activity for immunoglobulin synthesis in these infants. Augmentations of immunoglobulin production from 310 to 560% over that expected on the basis of individual culture data were noted in co-cultures of one of the infants' cells with two different unrelated normal control cells. These findings suggest that that infant may have had a T helper cell defect or that his T cells were unable to produce soluble factors necessary for B cell differentiation. The finding of cells with differentiation markers characteristic of T and B lymphocytes in each of these patients, though in variable quantities, is further evidence for heterogeneity among patients with the clinical syndrome of severe combined immunodeficiency and argues against the concept that their immunodeficiency was due to a stem cell defect.
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ranking = 1.5010764609535
keywords = defect
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