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1/14. Griscelli syndrome: report of the first peripheral blood stem cell transplant and the role of mutations in the RAB27A gene as an indication for BMT.

    Griscelli syndrome is characterized by partial albinism with variable immunodeficiency. Two different gene loci are responsible for this rare, autosomal recessive disease: the myosin Va gene and the RAB27A gene. As recently reported, only patients with mutations of the RAB27A gene suffer from immunodeficiency and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Thus, only patients who suffer from the Griscelli syndrome with mutations of the RAB27A gene should receive BMT/PBSCT, which is the only curative therapy. Due to the risk of early relapse or severe infections, BMT/PBSCT should be carried out as soon as possible; if patients do not have HLA-identical family members, valuable time may be lost by searching for an HLA-identical unrelated donor. We report the first peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) with T cell depletion in a 6-month-old girl with Griscelli syndrome, and a deletion of the RAB27A gene. The donor was her phenotypically HLA-identical mother. Conditioning included busulfan, VP16 and cyclophosphamide. The patient was transfused with 15.4 x 10(6)CD34-positive cells/kg and 17.6 x 10(3) CD3-positive cells/kg recipient weight. Three months after the transplant, a curable lymphoproliferative syndrome occurred. 26 months after the transplant, the patient is doing well with stable mixed chimerism (52% donor cells).
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2/14. Thymus transplantation in patients with thymic hypoplasia and abnormal immunoglobulin synthesis.

    Fetal thymus transplantation was performed in three patients with thymic hypoplasia with abnormal immunoglobulin synthesis, one patient with ataxia telangiectasia, and one patient with immunodeficiency with eczema and thrombocytopenia. All patients received transfer factor before transplantation of a fetal thymus i.p. Reconstitution of cell-mediated immunity occurred in three of five patients. Two of the three patients with reconstitution of cell-mediated immunity also had evidence of improved antibody-mediated immunity. Reconstitution of cell-mediated immunity was characterized as occurring rapidly and being of varying duration, and was unassociated with HL-A chimerism. Successful reconstitution of immunity in these patients may have been related to several factors, including the use of fetal thymus less than 6 hr after abortion, i.p. transplantation, and a synergistic effect of transfer factor.
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3/14. Correction of complete interferon-gamma receptor 1 deficiency by bone marrow transplantation.

    Complete interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFNgammaR1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by high susceptibility to recurrent, severe mycobacterial and other intracellular infections. We here report the first successful treatment of the disorder by bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The 8-year-old girl had suffered from recurrent mycobacterial infections in the past and had developed liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension. For conditioning, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) was used in combination with cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin (ATG). The patient received red cell-depleted bone marrow from her HLA-identical sister. The transplantation course was uneventful and 4 years later, the child remains in excellent clinical condition and free of mycobacterial infections. She has stable mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism after repeat T-cell transfusions. Liver disease has not further deteriorated. This experience shows that correction of IFNgammaR1 deficiency is possible by BMT and complications of the disease can be controlled.
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4/14. Successful allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation in a child who had anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency.

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency is associated with multiple infections and a poor clinical outcome. Hypomorphic mutations in nuclear factor kappaB essential modulator (NEMO)/IkappaB kinase complex and a hypermorphic mutation in inhibitor alpha of nuclear factor kappaB (IkappaBalpha) both result in impaired nuclear factor kappaB activation and are associated with X-recessive and autosomal-dominant forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency, respectively. Autosomal-dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency is also associated with a severe T-cell phenotype. It is not known whether hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can cure immune deficiency in children with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. A boy with autosomal-dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency and a severe T-cell immunodeficiency underwent transplantation at 1 year of age with haploidentical T-cell-depleted bone marrow after myeloablative conditioning. Engraftment occurred, with full hematopoietic chimerism. Seven years after transplantation, clinical outcome is favorable, with normal T-cell development. As expected, the developmental features of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome have appeared and persisted. This is the first report of successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a child with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is well tolerated and efficiently cures the profound immunodeficiency associated with autosomal-dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency.
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5/14. Immune status in two brothers with Omenn's syndrome: no discernible chimerism on FACS analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for a maternally restricted HLA antigen.

    Sequential immunologic examinations, including lymph node biopsies, in two brothers with clinical characteristics of Omenn's syndrome are presented in this study. Although the number of circulating T cells with mature phenotype (OKT3 , TCR1 ) was within normal range, the lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens was poor. Examinations of the lymph nodes revealed marked lymphoid depletion associated with eosinophilic infiltration and reticular cell proliferation. Over the clinical course of 5 months, circulating T cells also mostly disappeared. Thymic hypoplasia was noted at autopsy. Although intrauterine graft-versus host disease (GVHD) has been hypothesized as being the pathogenetic mechanism in this syndrome, maternal lymphocytes circulating in these patients were not identified either by karyotype and HLA typing or by highly sensitive FACS analysis and immunohistochemical studies using a monoclonal antibody, HLA-A9, specific for a maternally restricted HLA antigen, Aw24. In conclusion, the familial occurrence and the absence of maternal chimerism might be the essential features of Omenn's syndrome which should be differentiated from fetal GVHD.
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6/14. Successful bone marrow transplantation with split lymphoid chimerism in DiGeorge syndrome.

    A female infant with digeorge syndrome associated with severe T-cell immunodeficiency underwent a successful bone marrow transplantation from her HLA-identical, mixed leukocyte culture-nonreactive brother at 5 months of age. Mature circulating T cells and mitogen-induced proliferative responses were detectable at 10 days posttransplant, and by 8 months post-transplant functional T- and B-cell reconstitution was documented by normal responses to mitogens and normal levels of serum immunoglobulins as well as in vitro and in vivo T-cell reactivity to specific antigens and production of specific antibody to T cell-dependent antigens in vivo. Phytohemagglutinin-induced interleukin-2 production and cell surface interleukin-2 receptor expression improved posttransplant, with normal production values observed by 8 months posttransplant. Histologic examination of appendix and thoracic lymph node obtained 9 and 17 months posttransplant, respectively, revealed near-normal lymphoid architecture, with germinal center formation providing morphologic confirmation of reconstitution. Stable split lymphoid chimerism with T cells of donor origin and B cells remaining recipient in origin was documented by sex chromosome analysis. Two years posttransplant the subject remains free of serious infections. In conclusion, this case indicates that bone marrow transplantation can produce peripheral immunoreconstitution without need for significant thymic influence, most likely by providing a source of postthymic T cells, and that bone marrow transplantation should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with digeorge syndrome associated with severe T-cell deficiency.
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7/14. Lymphocyte chimerism after bone marrow transplantation. Surface markers and in vitro function of donor and recipient lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Specific HLA antibodies were used to eliminate donor and recipient cells, respectively, from lymphocyte suspensions prepared from the blood of a child who had been transplanted with bone marrow from an HLA-A- and HLA-B-incompatible, HLA-D-compatible donor. About 70% of the lymphocytes were of donor HLA type, the remaining of recipient type. The phytohemagglutinin-responsive lymphocytes were exclusively limited to the lymphocyte population carrying donor-type hla antigens. Membrane immunofluorescence investigations of the donor and recipient populations showed a low percentage of IgM-positive lymphocytes in the donor population and an extremely high proportion of IgM-positive lymphocytes in the recipient population. About 90% of the donor lymphocytes were T cells, as judged by their capacity to form rosettes between sheep erythrocytes and T lymphocytes; no cells in the recipient cell population expressed this ability.
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8/14. Accelerated development of immunity following transplantation of maternal marrow stem cells into infants with severe combined immunodeficiency and transplacentally acquired lymphoid chimerism.

    Transplacentally acquired lymphoid chimerism was detected in two infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) by two-colour cytofluorographic studies. These cells had no demonstrable function in studies in vitro. Following T cell-depleted maternal bone marrow stem cell transplantation, evidence of T cell function was detected 20 and 50 days later, and transient B cell function was detected 50 days later. These immune functions appeared much sooner than the 90-120 days usually required for T cell function and the 2-2.5 years for B cell function to develop after haplo-identical stem cell transplants into SCID infants without transplacental engraftment. The presence of maternal lymphoid chimerism did not interfere with haplo-identical marrow cell engraftment, even though no pre-transplant immunosuppression was given. This observation suggests that the transplanted maternal marrow stem cell in some way conferred reactivity on the engrafted but apparently non-functional mature T cells that had entered the fetal circulation transplacentally.
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9/14. Bone-marrow transplantation for inborn error of phagocytic cells associated with defective adherence, chemotaxis, and oxidative response during opsonised particle phagocytosis.

    Two girls had delayed umbilical cord detachment, recurrent bacterial infection, inability to form pus, and marked leucocytosis. Their phagocytes were defective in tests of adherence, random migration, chemotaxis, and oxidative burst. NK activity was virtually absent. This rare disorder, due to an inherited absence of a 180 kilodalton membrane glycoprotein on polymorphonuclear cells, is usually lethal within 2 years. Allogeneic HLA-matched bone-marrow transplantation done at ages 4 months in one patient and 2 years in the other after intensive conditioning was successful and resulted in nearly complete correction of phagocytic cell function and NK activity within two months. One patient died 9 months after transplantation from severe chronic graft-versus-host disease with obstructive bronchopneumopathy. The other is doing well 1 year after transplantation and showing stable chimerism and normal phagocytic function.
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10/14. bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immune deficiency in an infant with chimerism due to intrauterine-derived maternal lymphocytes: donor engraftment documented by chromosomal marker studies.

    Chromosomal heteromorphisms defined by the quinacrine banding technique were used to identify the maternal origin of 46,XX lymphocytes present in the blood of a male infant with severe combined immune deficiency disease. These chromosomal markers were also used to document the engraftment by donor lymphocytes from the sister and the concurrent disappearance of maternal lymphocytes after a successful bone marrow transplantation. Donor lymphocytes were detected by this technique 6 days after transplantation, earlier than is usually possible with other marker systems and before definite evidence of immunoreconstitution. Maternal lymphocytes persisted in the patient's peripheral blood for a prolonged period of time, being detectable 172 days after transplantation. Analysis of T-lymphocyte- and B-lymphocyte-enriched populations after transplantation documented lymphoid chimerism with t-lymphocytes of donor origin and b-lymphocytes of both patient and donor origin, demonstrating prolonged persistence of patient b-lymphocytes and suggesting that the patient's immune defect is primarily at the T-lymphocyte level.
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