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1/143. Successful related umbilical cord blood transplantation for graft failure following T cell-depleted non-identical bone marrow transplantation in a child with major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency.

    major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a rare form of primary combined immunodeficiency that can only be corrected by stem cell transplantation. We report a 4(1/2)-year-old girl with MHC class II deficiency who underwent a related CBT due to graft failure following T cell-depleted non-identical BMT. The patient is alive and well 2 years after the second transplant. A sustained hematopoietic engraftment and a progressive immune recovery have been detected. We conclude that cord blood may be an effective source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with immuno- deficiency disorders including diseases with a high rate of graft failure.
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2/143. Successful bone marrow transplantation in a case of Griscelli disease which presented in accelerated phase with neurological involvement.

    Griscelli disease (GD) is a rare disorder characterized by pigment dilution, immunodeficiency and occurrence of accelerated phase consisting of hemophagocytosis, pancytopenia and neurological manifestations. Allogeneic BMT in the early period is an important modality of treatment for GD. We carried out an alloBMT from an HLA-identical sibling donor on a 4-year-old girl who presented in accelerated phase with neurological manifestations including convulsions, strabismus, severe dysarthria, ataxia and clonus. She was treated with etoposide, methylprednisolone and intrathecal methotrexate for 8 weeks and underwent alloBMT after receiving a conditioning regimen including ATG (rabbit, 10 mg/kg x 5 days), Bu/Cy. 8 x 108/kg nucleated bone marrow cells were given. Engraftment occurred early and the post-BMT period was uneventful. Currently, she is at 18 months post BMT with sustained engraftment and with a normal neurological examination except for minimal clonus. Long-term follow-up will determine the prognosis regarding the neurological findings.
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3/143. The periodontal management of a patient with a profound immunodeficiency disorder.

    A case of severe, uncontrolled periodontal disease in a patient with a profound immunodeficiency disorder is reported. The periodontal disease was noted before the age of 10 years and is generalized, with marked associated alveolar bone loss, even threatening a mandibular fracture. Severely involved teeth were allowed to exfoliate, and extractions were avoided. At the age of 17 years, the patient now has only nine remaining teeth. The management adopted and alternative approaches are critically reviewed. The implications of the dental findings for current concepts of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and dental caries are discussed.
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4/143. Immunodeficiency diseases. I. T-lymphocyte precursors and T-lymphocyte differentiation in partial Di George syndrome.

    Immunological and pathological studies in a case of partial Di George syndrome revealed an absence of parathyroids, a major hypoplasia of thymus but a relatively moderate decrease in peripheral T-lymphocyte numbers and functions. After in vitro incubation with normal thymus extracts, a normal proportion of bone marrow cells was induced to differentiate into cells with characteristics of T lymphocytes, thus establishing the presence of T-cell precursors in the patient's bone marrow.
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5/143. In a novel form of IFN-gamma receptor 1 deficiency, cell surface receptors fail to bind IFN-gamma.

    Complete IFN-gamma receptor ligand-binding chain (IFNgammaR1) deficiency is a life-threatening autosomal recessive immune disorder. Affected children invariably die of mycobacterial infection, unless bone marrow transplantation is undertaken. Pathogenic IFNGR1 mutations identified to date include nonsense and splice mutations and frameshift deletions and insertions. All result in a premature stop codon upstream from the segment encoding the transmembrane domain, precluding cell surface expression of the receptors. We report herein two sporadic and two familial cases of a novel form of complete IFNgammaR1 deficiency in which normal numbers of receptors are detected at the cell surface. Two in-frame deletions and two missense IFNGR1 mutations were identified in the segment encoding the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Eight independent IFNgammaR1-specific mAb's, including seven blocking antibodies, gave recognition patterns that differed between patients, suggesting that different epitopes were altered by the mutations. No specific binding of (125)I-IFN-gamma to cells was observed in any patient, however, and the cells failed to respond to IFN-gamma. The mutations therefore cause complete IFNgammaR1 deficiency by disrupting the IFN-gamma-binding site without affecting surface expression. The detection of surface IFNgammaR1 molecules by specific antibodies, including blocking antibodies, does not exclude a diagnosis of complete IFNgammaR1 deficiency.
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6/143. Human IL-2 receptor alpha chain deficiency.

    Profound cellular immunodeficiency occurs as the result of mutations in proteins involved in both the differentiation and function of mature lymphoid cells. We describe here a novel human immune aberration arising from a truncation mutation of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25), a subunit of the tripartite high-affinity receptor for IL-2. Decreased numbers of peripheral T cells displaying abnormal proliferation but normal B-cell development characterize this immunodeficiency. Extensive lymphocytic infiltration of tissues, including lung, liver, gut, and bone, is observed, accompanied by tissue atrophy and inflammation. Although mature T cells are present, the absence of CD25 does affect the differentiation of thymocytes. Although displaying normal development of CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD8 expression, CD25-deficient cortical thymocytes do not express CD1. Furthermore, they fail to down-regulate levels of bcl-2 and, subsequently, apoptosis in the thymus is markedly reduced, resulting in expansion of autoreactive clones in multiple tissues.
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7/143. Generalized mastocytosis, relapsing herpes zoster and polyradiculoneuritis.

    A 68-year-old woman suffering from a longstanding urticaria pigmentosa with mast cell infiltrations in bones had two attacks of herpes zoster. The second herpes zoster attack was followed by a severe polyradiculoneuritis (guillain-barre syndrome). The sequence of events suggests an immunological deficiency.
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8/143. Successful treatment of Griscelli syndrome with unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair and in most patients by abnormal regulation of the immune system, which results in a syndrome of macrophage hyperactivation, known as hemophagocytic lymophohistiocytosis (HLH). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment available for genetically induced HLH. Few cases of successful HSCT from a compatible donor have been reported in children with GS. We describe the first patient with GS cured with an allograft from a compatible unrelated bone marrow donor. We used a novel preparative regimen consisting of busulfan, thiotepa and fludarabine. The demonstrated curative effect of HSCT from an unrelated donor in a patient with genetically determined HLH also supports the use of a systematic diagnostic approach in these patients, in order to identify those with a worse prognosis and needing an urgent allograft in a timely manner.
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keywords = macrophage, bone
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9/143. Correction of complete interferon-gamma receptor 1 deficiency by bone marrow transplantation.

    Complete interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFNgammaR1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by high susceptibility to recurrent, severe mycobacterial and other intracellular infections. We here report the first successful treatment of the disorder by bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The 8-year-old girl had suffered from recurrent mycobacterial infections in the past and had developed liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension. For conditioning, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) was used in combination with cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin (ATG). The patient received red cell-depleted bone marrow from her HLA-identical sister. The transplantation course was uneventful and 4 years later, the child remains in excellent clinical condition and free of mycobacterial infections. She has stable mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism after repeat T-cell transfusions. Liver disease has not further deteriorated. This experience shows that correction of IFNgammaR1 deficiency is possible by BMT and complications of the disease can be controlled.
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10/143. Griscelli syndrome without hemophagocytosis in an eleven-year-old girl: expanding the phenotypic spectrum of Rab27A mutations in humans.

    We present an eleven-year-old female patient who was referred to us with silvery hair, hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia-thrombocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and degenerative white matter disease, with a family history of a female sibling dying at the age of five and two living male cousins, ages 10 and 11. She had been followed up for her cytopenia the last three years and had totally recovered from a hemiplegic episode before admission. The family was of Arabic origin, and a second-degree consanguinity was reported between the parents. Microscopic analysis of her hair shafts revealed irregularly distributed small and large clumps of melanin, and skin biopsy findings were consistent with partial albinism. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy did not detect any evidence of hemophagocytosis. Genetic analysis identified a homozygous two-base-pair deletion (51 del CT leading to S18X) in the Rab27A gene of the patient. She suffered from febrile neutropenic episodes. Her persistent cytopenia could not be corrected with immunoglobulin, thrombocyte infusions, or a short course of growth factor treatment. splenectomy was planned due to her progressive splenic enlargement. She was also considered for bone marrow transplantation. She unfortunately died from an intracranial hemorrhage. Her clinical presentation was remarkable, mostly resembling partial albinism immunodeficiency/Elejalde syndrome due to her older age and absence of hemophagocytosis, but with molecular findings confirming Griscelli syndrome.
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