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1/2. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma with capsular invasion.

    A 67-year-old Japanese man developed a sudden onset of severe right-side upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On hospitalization, physical examination revealed sweating, tachycardia, hypertension and the appearance of peripheral vasoconstriction. An urgent computed tomography scan with contrast demonstrated a large hematoma in the right retroperitoneal space. A phentolamine test and an 131iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine scan suggested pheochromocytoma. An elective right adrenalectomy was successfully performed after pretreatment for sufficient volume replacement with continuous administration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pheochromocytoma 9.0 x 6.5 cm in diameter with evidence of capsular invasion, which could be associated with a tear in the capsule.
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2/2. Acute abdomen due to endometriosis as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia.

    Acute abdominal pain is a frequent diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in hematologic patients. We report on the very rare case of organ endometriosis with acute abdominal symptoms in a 43-year-old female patient with AML-M5, starting 4 days after induction chemotherapy with idarubicin, ara-C, and etoposide. The patient presented with an acute abdomen with clinical findings of acute cholecystitis, subileus, and local pain in the right upper abdomen accompanied by severe diarrhea. Probably due to impaired intestinal resorption, menstrual bleeding occurred despite regular administration of lynestrenol. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen disclosed a tumor with poor echoes in the pouch of Douglas, a subcapsular splenic hemorrhage, and a thickened gallbladder wall with surrounding edema. A cystic adnex tumor was confirmed by endovaginal ultrasound. Based on history and the findings on ultrasound, an endometriosis was diagnosed, and the LHRH agonist (nafarelin) was administered nasally in combination with lynestrenol. Following this medication the abdominal pain ceased, supporting the diagnosis of endometriosis. Nasal administration of an LHRH agonist in the following cycles of chemotherapy was effective in preventing further abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding. LHRH agonists should be given to patients with known endometriosis before starting myeloablative chemotherapy to prevent painful hemorrhage from endometriosis.
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