Cases reported "Incontinentia Pigmenti"

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11/121. incontinentia pigmenti in a surviving male is accompanied by hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and recurrent infection.

    Familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked dominant condition. The affected cases have characteristic skin lesions, hair, eye, teeth and nail abnormalities and may also have neurological problems. The diagnosis has traditionally been made on clinical grounds. Segregation analysis has suggested that it is lethal in males. Only one liveborn male has been reported who died at one day of age. female cases of IP survive because of the moderating effects of Lyonization. This child was the affected son of a female with IP. He had a novel phenotype consistent with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (HED-ID) but with additional features: he had major problems with hematological disturbances, failure to thrive due to malabsorption, recurrent infections, generalized osteosclerosis and lymphedema of his lower limbs. He also demonstrated some typical features of IP with a generalized reticular skin hyperpigmentation, sparse hair and delayed eruption of teeth. The gene for NEMO (nf-kappa b Essential Modulator) has recently been shown to be mutated in cases of IP. Furthermore, most (80%) of patients possess a recurrent genomic rearrangement that deletes part of the gene resulting in an inactive NEMO protein. In the male case described here, a NEMO stop codon mutation has been identified that has arisen de novo in his affected mother. This mutation is likely to have a less severe effect on NEMO activity and may explain why this child survived for two years and 7 months.
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12/121. Clinical features of incontinentia pigmenti with emphasis on dermatoglyphic findings.

    incontinentia pigmenti is a syndrome characterized by both systemic and oral manifestations. Presented here are the dental, clinical, radiological, genetic and dermatoglyphic findings of a 6 year old female case and her family members. The following features were apparent: oligodontia in maxillary and mandibular arches in both dentition, peg-shaped incisors and brown lesions on the body surface. No other problems were observed. The case had remarkable dermatoglyphic findings such as hypothenar loops associated with distally displaced axial triradii on both palms, reduced total finger and summed palmar a-b ridge-counts, decreasing plantar pattern intensity on the left sole. The other family members had similar dermatoglyphic characteristics. The paternal grand father, the father and the brother had eye defects.
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ranking = 7.4176102744892
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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13/121. Laser photocoagulation in preproliferative retinopathy of incontinentia pigmenti.

    incontinentia pigmenti is a rare, X-linked, dominant disorder in which affected female infants develop characteristic abnormalities of the skin, central nervous system, hair, teeth, and eyes. Ocular abnormalities occur in about 35% of patients and consist of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinal detachment, strabismus, cataract, microphthalmia, optic nerve atrophy, and iris hypoplasia. Retinal vascular abnormalities, ranging from peripheral retinal avascularity to neovascular and fibrous proliferation with traction retinal detachment, are the primary cause of severe visual dysfunction in patients. Therapeutic intervention with laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy for the proliferative vitreoretinopathy of incontinentia pigmenti has met with variable success. We report a case in which laser photocoagulation was used at the onset of retinopathy with subsequent resolution of the vasculopathy.
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ranking = 9.0220128431115
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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14/121. survival of male patients with incontinentia pigmenti carrying a lethal mutation can be explained by somatic mosaicism or klinefelter syndrome.

    incontinentia pigmenti (IP), or "Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome," is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of skin, teeth, hair, and eyes; skewed X-inactivation; and recurrent miscarriages of male fetuses. IP results from mutations in the gene for NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO), with deletion of exons 4-10 of NEMO accounting for >80% of new mutations. Male fetuses inheriting this mutation and other "null" mutations of NEMO usually die in utero. Less deleterious mutations can result in survival of males subjects, but with ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency. Male patients with skin, dental, and ocular abnormalities typical of those seen in female patients with IP (without immunodeficiency) are rare. We investigated four male patients with clinical hallmarks of IP. All four were found to carry the deletion normally associated with male lethality in utero. survival in one patient is explained by a 47,XXY karyotype and skewed X inactivation. Three other patients possess a normal 46,XY karyotype. We demonstrate that these patients have both wild-type and deleted copies of the NEMO gene and are therefore mosaic for the common mutation. Therefore, the repeat-mediated rearrangement leading to the common deletion does not require meiotic division. Hypomorphic alleles, a 47,XXY karyotype, and somatic mosaicism therefore represent three mechanisms for survival of males carrying a NEMO mutation.
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ranking = 7.4176102744892
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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15/121. hydrops fetalis in three male fetuses of a female with incontinentia pigmenti.

    OBJECTIVES: Careful investigation of hydrops fetalis (HF) is important with regard to genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. HF is known to be associated with various genetic disorders. To date there has been only one report of a male fetus in whom incontinentia pigmenti (IP) was associated with generalised oedema. We describe a family who had a girl with clinical signs of IP after three consecutive miscarriages of three male fetuses due to HF. RESULTS: Molecular genetic analysis showed a mutation in the NEMO/IKK(chi) gene in the girl and the mother, which confirmed the diagnosis of IP in both cases. In the two fetuses that could be investigated, inheritance of the affected maternal x chromosome could be demonstrated retrospectively by linkage analysis. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that IP might be an X-linked dominant trait causing HF in male fetuses. In cases of recurrent HF in male fetuses, minimal signs of IP in the maternal line should therefore be carefully investigated in order to be able to perform mutational analysis and to offer appropriate genetic counselling.
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ranking = 9.0220128431115
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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16/121. osteopetrosis, lymphedema, anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency in a boy and incontinentia pigmenti in his mother.

    A child with X-linked osteopetrosis, lymphedema, anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-EDA-ID) was recently reported. We report the clinical features of a second boy with this novel syndrome and his mother, who presented with signs of incontinentia pigmenti (IP). The child had mild osteopetrosis without neurosensory complications, unilateral lymphedema of the left leg, and characteristic features of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with sparse hair, facial dysmorphy, delayed eruption of teeth, and sweat gland abnormalities. He died at 18 months of severe immunodeficiency with multiple infections caused by Gram-negative (salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive (streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria, nontuberculous mycobacteria (mycobacterium kansasii), and fungi (pneumocystis carinii). His 30-year-old mother's medical history, together with residual cutaneous lesions, was highly suggestive of IP without neurologic impairment. In this patient with OL-EDA-ID, we detected the same NF-kappaB essential modulator stop codon hypomorphic mutation identified in the previous patient. The occurrence of the same clinical features in 2 unrelated patients with the same genotype demonstrates that OL-EDA-ID is a genuine clinical syndrome. The clinical and biological descriptions of the proband and his mother further corroborate the relationship between IP and EDA. Both syndromes are allelic and are associated with mutations in NF-kappaB essential modulator, with a genotype-phenotype correlation in hemizygous males. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations and hypomorphic mutations may cause IP in females.
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ranking = 9.0220128431115
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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17/121. Management of incontinentia pigmenti: a case of monolateral preretinal fibrovascular proliferations adjacent to snail-track degeneration areas.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of monolateral preretinal fibrovascularproliferations in a young adult woman, who had suffered from incontinentia pigmenti (IP) during her first month of life. methods: Case report. RESULTS: Circumscribed preretinal fibrovascular proliferations, adjacent to a mid-peripheral area of snail track degeneration, were occasionally diagnosed in the left eye of an asymptomatic 18-year-old white female. Careful ocular examination did not reveal any cause of the monolateral vascular abnormalities observed in the posterior segment. A detailed medical history brought to light that the patient has suffered infantile IP, like four other females in her family. The patient did not present any evident malformation of teeth, nails, skeleton or hair. A cytogenetic linkage study documented a chromosomal aberration in the Xq28 band, which confirmed the diagnosis of familial IP (type 2). The fluorescein angiography findings clearly illustrated the minimal retinal involvement in the course of IP. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows that a wide range of etiologies must be considered in patients presenting monolateral preretinal fibrovascular proliferations. To correctly manage these uncommon, inherited or acquired, retinal diseases it is better to do a mid-term follow-up, rather than operate immediately, and this enabled us to observe the natural course of the lesion, while awaiting a definitive diagnosis.
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ranking = 9.0220128431115
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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18/121. incontinentia pigmenti presenting as seizures.

    incontinentia pigmenti is a rare disorder that may affect many systems including the skin, central nervous system, bone, and eyes. We describe a 13-day-old girl who developed seizures on day 1 of life and was placed on antiseizure medication. On approximately day 4 of life, she developed a vesicular rash on her trunk and extremities. The pediatric team prescribed intravenous acyclovir and diphenhydramine cream. These were used without improvement. At dermatology consultation, linear and swirled vesicular lesions were seen. A skin biopsy specimen revealed eosinophils within intraepidermal vesicles consistent with a diagnoses of incontinentia pigmenti. This case of incontinentia pigmenti is of interest in that the initial symptom was a seizure disorder.
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ranking = 4.6088051372446
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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19/121. Two cases of misinterpretation of molecular results in incontinentia pigmenti, and a PCR-based method to discriminate NEMO/IKKgamma dene deletion.

    Familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder that affects ectodermal tissues. Over 90% of IP carrier females have a recurrent genomic deletion of exons 4-10 of the NEMO (IKBKG-IKKgamma) gene, which encodes a regulatory component of the IkB kinase complex, required to activate the NF-kB pathway. In IP, mutations in NEMOlead to the complete loss of NF-kB activation creating a susceptibility to cellular apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha. This condition is lethal for males during embryogenesis while females, who are mosaic as a result of X-inactivation, can survive. Recently, a second nonfunctional copy of the gene, DeltaNEMO, was identified, opposite in direction to NEMO in a 35.5-kb duplicated sequence tract. PCR-based detection of the NEMO deletion is diagnostic for IP disease. However, we present instances in which ex 4-10 DeltaNEMO pseudogene deletion occurs in unaffected parents of two females with clinically characteristic IP. These were missed by the currently standard PCR-based method, but can be easily discriminated by a new PCR-based test reported here that permits unambiguous molecular diagnosis and proper familial genetic counseling for IP.
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ranking = 9.0220128431115
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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20/121. Late recurrence of inflammatory first-stage lesions in incontinentia pigmenti: an unusual phenomenon and a fascinating pathologic mechanism.

    BACKGROUND: incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked genodermatosis that is manifested by neonatal inflammatory vesicles localized along the lines of Blaschko. These lesions usually clear spontaneously within a few months, leaving hyperpigmentation. Ophthalmologic and neurologic symptoms can be associated with IP. Late recurrences of the first-stage inflammatory lesions after the initial rash are uncommon and have been reported infrequently. The mechanism involved in this phenomenon is unclear. However, the recent identification of NEMO/IKKgamma as the gene responsible for IP sheds new light on its pathophysiologic origins. OBSERVATIONS: We report 5 cases of children who experienced episodes of late reactivation of IP. In all cases, the recurrences occurred on the previously hyperpigmented streaks several months or years after resolution of the initial eruptions. In most cases, the recurrences were preceded by an infectious episode. CONCLUSIONS: These IP recurrences suggest that mutated cells can persist a long time in the epidermis. We theorize that infections trigger the reactivations. The NEMO/IKKgamma gene encodes a protein essential in nuclear factor kappaB activation, which is required for resistance to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. We discuss the role of a proinflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor alpha as a triggering factor for the reactivation.
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ranking = 7.4176102744892
keywords = incontinentia pigmenti, incontinentia, pigmenti
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