Cases reported "Infant, Newborn, Diseases"

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1/48. Epidemic listeriosis. Report of 14 cases detected in 9 months.

    During the period August 1977 to April 1978, 14 Black patients in Johannesburg area had systemic infections caused by listeria monocytogenes. Nine of these patients were neonates who presented with septicaemia (5 cases) or septicaemia and meningitis (4 cases) and 5 were adults, all of whom had meningitis. The mortality rate was 43% (6/14), with 4 neonatal and 2 adult deaths. All isolates of L. monocytogenes were type 4b. Only sporadic cases of human listeriosis have previously been reported in south africa, and the cases reported here constitute the first epidemic in this country.
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2/48. perinatal mortality and maternal mortality at the Provincial Hospital, Quang Ngai, South vietnam, 1967-1970.

    The perinatal mortality, maternal mortality, infant mortality rates, and the complications of delivery at the Provincial Hospital of Quang Ngai, South vietnam are described. The perinatal mortality is the only valid statistic available as the infant usually leaves the hospital within three days of delivery. knowledge pertaining to the 4th to 28th day after birth is scanty and there is insufficient knowledge about the first year of life. infant mortality is estimated at 277 per 1,000 live births. The perinatal mortality 64.6 per 1,000 live births, and maternal mortality, 106 per 10,000 live births are extremely high in contrast to Western countries. The high perinatal mortality is attributable to deaths during birth, the neonatal and immediate postnatal period. The high maternal mortality is primarily due to caesarean section, anemia, uterine rupture, toxemia, post-partum hemorrhage and puerperal infection.
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ranking = 17
keywords = mortality
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3/48. Corrosive injuries of the esophagus in newborns.

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of corrosive esophageal injuries (CEI) in the neonatal period, the records of 184 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over a 10-year period from January 1987 to November 1997 were reviewed. Eight (4.3%) were newborns (5 boys and 3 girls). The mean age of the newborns was 12 days (range 1-28). The ingested caustic materials were benzalkonium chloride in six patients and trichloroacetic acid in two. Oropharyngeal examination and esophagoscopy were performed for diagnosis. hyperemia and fibrin plaques were present in the oropharynx in all patients. The management consisted of endotracheal intubation, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and total parenteral nutrition. pneumonia and sepsis developed in three patients and one died of sepsis. Stenosis developed in two patients, who were treated three times with antegrade dilatations. The morbidity was 62.5% (five patients) and the mortality was 12.5% (one) in newborns with CEI. These results indicate that ingestion of a caustic substance results in high morbidity and mortality in newborns. parents and nurses should be warned about this risk.
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ranking = 3
keywords = mortality
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4/48. Intracranial hemorrhage and hematuria in a neonate associated with heavy maternal smoking.

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with greater rates of premature deliveries, low birth weight, perinatal morbidity and mortality, and impaired intellectual development. It also causes a three-fold greater risk for intracranial hemorrhage in neonates. To our knowledge no neonatal case with intracranial hemorrhage and hematuria related to heavy maternal smoking has been published to date. In this case report we present a neonate with intracranial hemorrhage and hematuria, which were associated with heavy maternal smoking, to emphasize the importance of heavy maternal smoking as a causal factor in neonatal bleeding.
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5/48. Congenital aganglionosis of the entire colon in neonates.

    A report of six cases and their radiological diagnosis in neonates. Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a variety of what is commonly known as long segment Hirschsprung's disease. This is not a rare condition, but is often unrecognized. It has a high mortality, frequently with a complicating enterocolitis. Aganglionosis of some part of the colon should be suspected in all babies who show obstructive plain film changes. In TCA the barium enema changes may easily be passed as unremarkable. However, free ileal reflux during the examination, with a transition point in the ileum, and retention of barium in the entire colon after the examination, are diagnostic.
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6/48. Complications and follow-up of gastroschisis.

    Twenty-seven patients with gastroschisis were seen at the red cross war Memorial Children's Hospital between 1960 and 1977. Twenty-five children were operated on either by primary closure, by skin closure alone, or by the insertion of a reinforced Silastic pouch or patch. The mortality rate has been reduced from 62% to 33% over the past 6 years. Despite better metabolic and respiratory care and intravenous alimentation, serious complications still occur, particularly when prematurity and associated anomalies such as atresia or meconium ileus exist. Other problems were respiratory complications, ileus, perforation, gangrene, intestinal obstruction, enterocolitis and disaccharide intolerance. The long-term follow-up of some of these patients is described.
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7/48. Vertically acquired neonatal citrobacter brain abscess - case report and review of the literature.

    Vertically acquired citrobacter meningitis in the neonate is very rare and carries a very high mortality and morbidity. overall, approximately 30% of neonates with Citrobacter meningitis die and 50% sustain some damage to the CNS. The authors describe a case of a newborn with citrobacter koseri meningitis with multiple brain abscesses, with a successful outcome following multiple burr-hole aspirations and prolonged antibiotic therapy. An aggressive surgical approach combined with intravenous antibiotics (including imipenems, to which the organism is very sensitive) for a minimum of 4 weeks appears to improve the outcome of infection with this virulent organism.
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8/48. Neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis after negative screen in a patient taking oral antibiotics.

    BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infection. Neonatal morbidity and mortality can be reduced by appropriate prenatal screening and intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. CASE: A 20-year-old primigravida was treated with oral antibiotics at 35 weeks for a recurrent urinary tract infection. Her GBS screen following the antibiotic treatment showed a negative culture. The patient, therefore, did not receive intravenous antibiotics during her induction of labor for mild preeclampsia. The infant developed early onset neonatal GBS pneumonia and sepsis. CONCLUSION: Oral antibiotics can cause a temporary negative culture in a GBS-colonized patient. Relying on a negative culture for management may not be appropriate in a patient treated with oral antibiotics. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of oral antibiotics on GBS.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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9/48. Herpesvirus infection in the newborn. Its treatment by exchange transfusion and adenosine arabinoside.

    A case is reported of herpesvirus infection in the newborn following maternal genital herpesvirus infection. The rationale for treating a newborn infant with signs of disseminated herpesvirus infection by exchange transfusion in addition to adenosine arabinoside is discussed. Because of the lack of data concerning therapy for a disease with a 50 to 100% mortality rate, it is important to present material such as this in order to provide information about possible new therapeutic modalities.
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10/48. Group B streptococcus infection in mother and child.

    Despite significant advances in obstetric and pediatric health care, group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GBS) remains one of the most prevalent and devastating pathogens in peripartum women and their newborn infants. It may cause urinary tract infection, chorioamnionitis and endometritis, bacteremia, and cesarean wound infection in the peripartum period. Moreover, GBS accounts for nearly 50% of serious neonatal bacterial infections. Approximately three in every 1,000 children born in the united states acquire pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis from GBS, with combined mortality and morbidity exceeding 50% despite appropriate antibiotic and supportive therapy. Estimates indicate that more than 10,000 infants are affected annually, at a cost of more than $300 million. Neonatal disease is divided into early- and late-onset syndromes: The illness emerging after six days of age differs in terms of GBS serotype, clinical manifestations, and outcome from the disseminated process seen in earlier onset. We describe two infants infected with GBS and discuss risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, and options for disease prevention in the peripartum woman and her infant.
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ranking = 1
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