Cases reported "Infant, Newborn, Diseases"

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1/52. Neonatal gastric volvulus.

    Three infants with acute gastric volvulus occurring during the first week of life are presented, bringing the total number of cases reported in the neonatal period to nine. Abdominal radiographs and constrast studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract were nearly identical in all three infants and showed a characteristic pattern that allowed unequivocal preoperative diagnosis. It is essential that the radiologist recognize the radiographic features of acute gastric volvulus, since prompt operative intervention is mandatory to prevent late complications, which include gastric perforation and death.
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2/52. Neonatal infectious spondylitis of the cervical spine presenting with quadriplegia: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report.- OBJECTIVE: To highlight the evaluation and treatment of neonatal infectious spondylitis of the cervical spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most authors advise intravenous antibiotics as first-choice treatment. The place of aspiration or operative drainage is debated, as is the position and duration of immobilization. methods: A 3-week-old neonate was presented with intermittent quadriplegia. RESULTS: Additional investigation demonstrated an osteolytic process in the body of C3 with a large epidural abscess compressing the spinal cord. Because an infectious spondylitis of C3 was suspected, aspiration of the abscess was performed, and antibiotic therapy was started. The patient improved to neurologically normal within 3 weeks and remains asymptomatic throughout a follow-up period of 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal infectious spondylitis should be diagnosed early and treated promptly; otherwise, it may have devastating consequences.
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3/52. Suprarenal abscess in the neonate: a case report and review of diagnosis and management.

    A case of unilateral suprarenal abscess is reported. This is the third such reported case, and the first reported case successfully treated with preservation of the kidney. diagnosis and treatment were aided significantly by a thorough preoperative radiological evaluation, including angiography.
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4/52. Early bone grafting in Tessier number 4 cleft: a case report.

    Rare craniofacial clefts have an incidence of at least 1 per 100,000 live births. A Tessier number 4 cleft is one of the most rare craniofacial clefts, with less than 50 cases being reported in the literature. Both soft and bony tissue abnormalities take place in the cleft morphology, so not only clinical examination of the maxillofacial region but a detailed radiological workup is needed to assess clearly the nature of the clefts. A patient with a Tessier number 4 cleft is presented, whose bony defect was obliterated with autogenous iliac bone graft chips and soft tissue reconstruction was performed with multiple Z-plasty flaps. Postoperative clinical and radiological results demonstrate fine healing and good cosmesis. Although controversy still exists about the treatment of facial clefts with early bone grafts, advantages of performing both bony and soft tissue reconstructions in a single session make this treatment a good alternative with satisfactory clinical and radiological results.
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5/52. Vein of Galen malformation combined with atrial septal defect in a neonate.

    An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein, whereby the interconnecting capillary network is missing. Such a malformation frequently occurs in the deep midline regions of the brain, and the subsequent increased flow into the draining vein of Galen substantially dilates in an aneurysmal manner. Congenital forms of the aneurysmal dilatation of the vein of Galen (AVG) often lead to death in the neonatal period, predominantly due to cardiac failure caused by the increased venous inflow as a consequence of the intracerebral arteriovenous shunting. In the presented case a male baby suffered from a rare combination of a cerebral AVF and an atrial septal defect (ASD). He was born at week 38 of pregnancy and subsequently developed tachydyspnoe. Ultrasound (US) and CT scans revealed a large bilateral AVF with dilated basal venous sinuses, hydrocephalus and brain atrophy. In the heart, severe right ventricular hypertrophy, patent ductus arteriosus and an ASD were detectable by US. Neurosurgical consultation rejected the possibility of an operative treatment due to size and localization of the lesion and the existing irreversible brain damage. The child died because of cardiac failure 6 days after birth. autopsy examination in the brain demonstrated a large conglomerate of dilated blood vessels predominantly in the midline and left occipital lobe, edema and hydrocephalus. In the heart, the ASD detected by US proved to be an ostium secundum-type lesion. Histologically, the conglomerate of vessels revealed features of an AVF and matched the characteristics of AVG. Consequences of chronic ischemic brain injury were also present, with ferruginated neurons suggesting intrauterine damage caused by a congenital AVF. Based on data in the literature, we assume that the left-to-right shunt due to increased venous influx into the heart caused not only cardiomegaly, but may have also interfered with the normal development of the atrial septum leading to an ASD, contributing to the rapid progression of the cardiac failure.
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6/52. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction.

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery.
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7/52. Renal cyst puncture: a non-diagnostic procedure in the infant.

    A case of metastatic wilms tumor in a newborn is presented. Cyst puncture was included in the preoperative evaluation and the merits of this procedure in infants are questioned. The differential diagnosis of intrarenal masses in the neonate is discussed.
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8/52. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a new cause of intestinal obstruction in the newborn. Report of radiologic findings in five newborn girls.

    Five newborn girls presented with small intestinal obstruction and microcolon and a giant bladder (megacystis). Organic causes of obstruction were not found, and the gastrointestinal tract failed to function after appropriate diversion. Two died in the postoperative period, two lived several months on central venous hyperalimentation, and one died at 34 months of age following chronic though intermittent hyperalimentation. Pathologic studies showed an abundance of ganglion cells in both dilated and narrowed areas of intestine; the combined small bowel-colon length was one-third of normal in the absence of an evident obstructive or vascular insult. The five patients represent the most severe manifestation of defective intestinal peristalsis in a larger group of distended newborns in whom organic gastrointestinal obstruction is not found. Treatment with central venous hyperalimentation may sustain life, and some patients eventually recover gastrointestinal function. The hypoperistalsis is largely refractory to pharmacologic treatment; its cause is unknown.
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9/52. Elevated serum proinsulin in beta cell nesidioblastosis. Report of a case in a newborn.

    A newborn infant with severe hypoglycaemia and nesidioblastosis was subjected to subtotal pancreatectomy without any sign of improvement. In spite of very low plasma levels of glucose (i.e. less than 1 mmol/l) plasma insulin concentrations were high (i.e. greater than 700 pmol/l). plasma proinsulin was considerably enhanced comprising 43% of the total insulin immunoreactivity. plasma glucagon concentrations were normal. Postoperatively normal to subnormal plasma glucose levels could only be maintained by treatment with frequent meals, diazoxide and intramuscular injections of a long-acting glucagon preparation. With time, signs of mental retardation became obvious.
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10/52. Interrupted aortic arch complex: successful total correction in the neonate.

    Two neonates subjected to definitive repair of interrupted aortic arch complex during the first week of life are presented. Results correlated well with preoperative status. Our definition of complete correction, including direct aortic anastomosis, is discussed along with the surgical strategy employed for successful repair of this otherwise dismal anomaly.
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