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1/8. Successful treatment of late-onset infection due to resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in an extremely low birth weight infant using ciprofloxacin.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a case in which an extremely low birth weight infant with multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical case report of a neonate who received broad spectrum antibiotics for possible infection despite negative cultures. The infant developed sepsis and meningitis resulting from multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, which was treated with ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The literature for the use of ciprofloxacin in pediatric patients was reviewed. RESULTS: The infant responded to the antibiotic regimen with sterilization of blood and cerebrospinal fluid; no adverse effects were attributable to the ciprofloxacin. Although ciprofloxacin has been found to cause irreversible injury to cartilage in juvenile laboratory animals, a review of the literature found that this complication occurs rarely if at all in pediatric patients. ciprofloxacin has been found to be effective in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections in pediatric patients, including premature infants. CONCLUSION: ciprofloxacin should be considered in the treatment of neonatal infection caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Although the published experience with this drug suggests that it is effective and that significant toxicity is not common, its use should be restricted to the treatment of serious infections for which an alternative antibiotics is not available.
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2/8. Colonic pneumatosis intestinalis in preterm infants: different to necrotising enterocolitis with a more benign course?

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the predominant immaturity-associated disease of the bowel in the preterm neonate and leads to substantial mortality and long-term morbidity. Diagnostic features of NEC include, apart from the clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological parameters. Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) on abdominal radiographs is regarded as a criterion of definitive proof for this disease entity. The objective of this presentation is to link the topographic pattern of PI to the clinical course in cases of suspected NEC. We report two cases of radiological appearance of colonic PI indicative of NEC without associated laboratory and/or macroscopic evidence of the disease, and with minor clinical symptoms only. Data from animal studies indicate that decreased blood supply to the small bowel is associated with more extensive bowel damage as compared to impaired colonic perfusion. Therefore the topographical distribution of PI might be a more specific sign as the general presence or absence of PI. CONCLUSION: The topographical pattern of pneumatosis intestinalis may be predictive of the clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease in preterm infants.
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3/8. Successful treatment of late onset infection due to multi-drug resistant acinetobacter Lwoffii in a low birth weight neonate using ciprofloxacin.

    This report presents the case of a low birth weight neonate with multidrug-resistant acinetobacter Lwoffii infection who was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. Use of ciprofloxacin in pediatric populations was reviewed. The infant responded to the antibiotic regimen with sterilized cerebrospinal fluid with no adverse effects attributable to the ciprofloxacin. Although ciprofloxacin has been found to cause irreversible damage to cartilage in laboratory animals, a review of the literature found that this complication rarely occurs in pediatric patients. ciprofloxacin has been found to be effective in the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram negative infections in pediatric patients, including premature infants. ciprofloxacin should be considered in the treatment of neonatal infection caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms.
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4/8. Human cytomegalovirus as a direct pathogen: correlation of multiorgan involvement and cell distribution with clinical and pathological findings in a case of congenital inclusion disease.

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesviridae, is the most frequent cause of congenital virus infections and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Due to the lack of an appropriate animal model, insight into the pathogenesis of HCMV infections originates primarily from in situ examination of HCMV-infected tissues. Although in immunocompromised adults such tests are complicated frequently by the presence of additional misleading pathogens, the absence of additional pathogens renders congenital inclusion disease the most suitable access for investigation of pathogenetic aspects of HCMV infections. Immunohistochemical examination of tissue sections from a boy with fatal congenital inclusion disease was undertaken to detect the extent of multiorgan and cell involvement. Adrenal gland, bone marrow, diencephalon, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, placenta, small bowel and spleen were included in this study. Detection of virus antigens from different phases of viral replication revealed that all investigated organs were infected by HCMV. Simultaneous detection of cell type specific marker molecules showed that a variety of cell types stained positive for HCMV antigens including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal cells, hepatocytes, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. The lung, the pancreas, the kidneys and the liver were the major target organs with a high number of HCMV infected cells. This correlated with multiorgan failure as the cause of death and strongly indicates direct pathogenetic effects of HCMV.
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5/8. intestinal perforation associated with indomethacin treatment in premature infants.

    Within 9 months we observed intestinal perforations in three very low birth weight (VLBW) infants undergoing indomethacin treatment for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). The three patients exhibited striking similarities in their clinical courses and predisposing factors. Although clinical and histological criteria did not differentiate the perforations from necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a well-known entity in premature infants, these events were remarkable to us since we had observed no other cases of NEC in recent years. From animal experiments and pathophysiological data, a role for indomethacin in gastrointestinal ischaemic damage must be considered. This communication is not meant to discredit indomethacin treatment. However, awareness of potential complications and careful monitoring during treatment is warranted.
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6/8. The acardiac anomaly.

    karyotype analysis of a premature human acardiac twin disclosed normal chromosomes. A review of previous cytogenetic, placental and animal studies suggests that chromosomal errors are not the cause of the acardiac anomaly. Rather, they point to the placental vascular anastomoses as the principal pathogenetic event.
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7/8. Fatal accident resulting from methyl bromide poisoning after fumigation of a neighbouring house; leakage through sewage pipes.

    An intoxication after using methyl bromide (CH3Br) in fumigation is reported. The accident resulted in the death of a newborn infant within 12-13 h after exposure, as well as clinical intoxication of the infant's parents. The concentration of bromide ion in the infant's blood was 170 mg l-1 and in the parents blood it was 130 and 110 mg l-1. autopsy showed that the cause of death was acute pneumonia due to aspiration, most likely resulting from vomiting and aspiration after inhalation of CH3Br. The clinical symptoms of the parents are reported, as well as a brief survey on the kinetics and CH3Br toxicity in animals and humans. Reconstruction of the events prior to the intoxication revealed that the sewage pipes serving the two houses had been sucked empty only 1-2 h prior to the start of fumigation, resulting in an open sewage connection between the houses and permitting CH3Br to leak from the treated house into the house of the affected family.
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8/8. abdominal wall plasty for a premature infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    This paper reports a premature infant with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) who underwent an abdominal wall plasty to enlarge the abdominal cavity, one of twin infants born at 32 weeks weighing 1,255 g. After stabilization, the herniated viscera were reduced from the pleural cavity and the abdominal wall muscle and skin layers were replaced by a Gore-tex patch without closure of the diaphragmatic defect. Respiratory and circulatory conditions were stable during the perioperative period. Postoperatively, a roentogenogram showed expansion of the lung. However, his condition deteriorated 24 h after surgery, triggered by intratracheal suction, and he died on the 4th day of life despite the use of high-frequency oscillation, catecholamines, and vasodilators. Postmortem examination showed severely hypoplastic lungs. abdominal wall plasty may be a less invasive initial procedure, however, further studies, such as comparison with the standard method or conservative management, are needed using a large clinical group or animal models to justify the usefulness of this procedure.
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