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1/54. Diagnosis and management of spinal epidural space extravasation complicating percutaneous central venous line placement in a premature infant: case report and review of literature.

    Percutaneous central venous lines are commonly used to establish long-term venous access in the care of premature infants. Misplacement of these catheters can occur and may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Here we report a very-low-birth-weight premature infant whose percutaneous central venous line was inadvertently placed into the spinal epidural space. The anatomical basis of this complication as well as a comprehensive review of literature are provided.
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2/54. perinatal mortality and maternal mortality at the Provincial Hospital, Quang Ngai, South vietnam, 1967-1970.

    The perinatal mortality, maternal mortality, infant mortality rates, and the complications of delivery at the Provincial Hospital of Quang Ngai, South vietnam are described. The perinatal mortality is the only valid statistic available as the infant usually leaves the hospital within three days of delivery. knowledge pertaining to the 4th to 28th day after birth is scanty and there is insufficient knowledge about the first year of life. infant mortality is estimated at 277 per 1,000 live births. The perinatal mortality 64.6 per 1,000 live births, and maternal mortality, 106 per 10,000 live births are extremely high in contrast to Western countries. The high perinatal mortality is attributable to deaths during birth, the neonatal and immediate postnatal period. The high maternal mortality is primarily due to caesarean section, anemia, uterine rupture, toxemia, post-partum hemorrhage and puerperal infection.
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3/54. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in neonatal neutropenia.

    neutropenia in neonates is often associated with sepsis, prematurity and maternal hypertension with increased risk of mortality. We describe two neonates with neutropenia treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor. The total and absolute neutrophil counts showed a marked response and led to a favourable outcome. Human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor may be used as an adjuvant therapy for neonatal neutropenia of different aetiologies.
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4/54. Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia in premature monozygous twins.

    Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disorder of the neonate and young infant. Hematologically, the mother's peripheral neutrophil count is normal. However, the passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin g neutrophil-specific antibodies and the subsequent sensitization of fetal neutrophils can result in severe neutropenia in the neonate. Generally, ANN is a self-limiting condition, but with severe bacterial infection, mortality can be high. We present the clinical features of monozygous twins delivered at 33 weeks' postconception with this condition. This case report is unique in that it occurred in twins born prematurely and was attributable to antibodies against 2 neutrophil-specific antigens, NA1 and NB1. A brief review of the diagnosis, management, and treatment of ANN is presented.
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5/54. Fatal case of influenza b virus pneumonia in a preterm neonate.

    Influenza B infection typically has low mortality. A 1,020-g neonate had a septic clinical picture and pneumonia. influenza b virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal and tracheal aspirates. The infant died.
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6/54. Colonic pneumatosis intestinalis in preterm infants: different to necrotising enterocolitis with a more benign course?

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the predominant immaturity-associated disease of the bowel in the preterm neonate and leads to substantial mortality and long-term morbidity. Diagnostic features of NEC include, apart from the clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological parameters. Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) on abdominal radiographs is regarded as a criterion of definitive proof for this disease entity. The objective of this presentation is to link the topographic pattern of PI to the clinical course in cases of suspected NEC. We report two cases of radiological appearance of colonic PI indicative of NEC without associated laboratory and/or macroscopic evidence of the disease, and with minor clinical symptoms only. Data from animal studies indicate that decreased blood supply to the small bowel is associated with more extensive bowel damage as compared to impaired colonic perfusion. Therefore the topographical distribution of PI might be a more specific sign as the general presence or absence of PI. CONCLUSION: The topographical pattern of pneumatosis intestinalis may be predictive of the clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease in preterm infants.
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7/54. Isolated left ventricular ischemia after the Norwood procedure.

    Aortic atresia is the most severe variant of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and has been associated with significant mortality after stage I palliation. Coronary artery abnormalities are more prominent in this group of patients, especially in the presence of a patent mitral valve. Herein, we describe a case of isolated left ventricular ischemia after the Norwood procedure in a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, mitral stenosis, aortic atresia, and anomalous left coronary artery.
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8/54. Human cytomegalovirus as a direct pathogen: correlation of multiorgan involvement and cell distribution with clinical and pathological findings in a case of congenital inclusion disease.

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesviridae, is the most frequent cause of congenital virus infections and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Due to the lack of an appropriate animal model, insight into the pathogenesis of HCMV infections originates primarily from in situ examination of HCMV-infected tissues. Although in immunocompromised adults such tests are complicated frequently by the presence of additional misleading pathogens, the absence of additional pathogens renders congenital inclusion disease the most suitable access for investigation of pathogenetic aspects of HCMV infections. Immunohistochemical examination of tissue sections from a boy with fatal congenital inclusion disease was undertaken to detect the extent of multiorgan and cell involvement. Adrenal gland, bone marrow, diencephalon, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, placenta, small bowel and spleen were included in this study. Detection of virus antigens from different phases of viral replication revealed that all investigated organs were infected by HCMV. Simultaneous detection of cell type specific marker molecules showed that a variety of cell types stained positive for HCMV antigens including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal cells, hepatocytes, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. The lung, the pancreas, the kidneys and the liver were the major target organs with a high number of HCMV infected cells. This correlated with multiorgan failure as the cause of death and strongly indicates direct pathogenetic effects of HCMV.
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9/54. peritoneal dialysis for continuing renal support after cardiac ECMO and hemofiltration.

    Postoperative acute renal insufficiency after cardiac surgery in neonates is associated with increased mortality and is usually treated (while using ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) with hemofiltration. Renal support has to be continued after weaning from ECMO when oliguria persists. When using hemofiltration, prolonged anticoagulation and a vascular access is needed, which, however, carries the risk of hemorrhagic as well as thromboembolic complications. Alternatively, peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be performed. We report data from 5 infants treated with ECMO after corrective cardiac surgery, who experienced oliguria after ECMO weaning and were consequently treated with PD. Arterial and central venous pressures, inotropic demand, urinary output, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and survival were investigated. All patients survived. Installation of PD resulted in stable hemodynamics in all patients, despite continued oliguria. Normal renal function was established in four patients. One patient, suffering from persistent renal insufficiency, remained on PD. PD effectively supports insufficient renal functioning after ECMO weaning without the need for anticoagulation or a vascular access. Acute renal insufficiency may be reversible even after weeks and, if necessary, PD also enables prolonged treatment until renal transplantation.
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10/54. Clinical features and treatment outcome of intussusception in premature neonates.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Less than 1.3% of all cases of intussusception occur in term neonates. intussusception in premature neonates (IPN) is exceedingly rare. Its rarity and difficulty to differentiate IPN from common neonatal diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) often delays its diagnosis. The authors set out to characterize diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of this rare condition. methods: The authors analyzed 2 new cases of IPN and 33 previously reported cases from the literature. RESULTS: The 35 patients with IPN had an average gestational age, postconceptual age at diagnosis, and birth weight of 28.4 /- 0.6 weeks (all data, mean /- SEM), 31.1 /- 0.5 weeks, and 1,165 /- 21 g, respectively. Gastrointestinal symptoms first presented at age 8 /- 1 days. A preoperative diagnosis of NEC was assumed in 24 patients, delaying diagnosis by 10 /- 2 days. intussusception was diagnosed radiographically in 2 patients (1 contrast enema and 1 ultrasound scan) and during surgery or autopsy in the remainder. Resection was reported in 28 patients for bowel that was irreducible, necrotic, or perforated. The overall mortality rate was 20%, mainly owing to sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: intussusception in the premature neonate often is misdiagnosed as NEC, delaying operative intervention. Contrast enema has limited diagnostic capability. early diagnosis may be achieved with use of ultrasound scan. intussusception can be treated successfully with resection and primary anastomosis, achieving good results.
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