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1/1054. Unusual site for oesophageal perforation in an extremely low birth weight infant.

    A male infant born at 26 weeks gestation became unwell at 10 days of age with blood-stained pharyngeal aspirates. The chest radiograph revealed a feeding tube in the right pleural cavity, indicating a perforation of the thoracic oesophagus. The infant had had a chest drain inserted on the right side on two previous occasions. These had been allowed to remain across the mediastinum at the site of the subsequent perforation. The infant was successfully managed conservatively with no long-term sequelae The unusual site of the perforation led us to conclude that pressure necrosis from the drains was a contributing factor in the aetiology. CONCLUSION: Oesophageal perforations in the neonate, in contrast to the adult, can be managed conservatively. ( info)

2/1054. Liposomal amphotericin b in neonates with invasive candidiasis.

    Liposomal amphotericin b (L-Amp B), a novel formulation of amphotericin b, is effective for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in children and adults and is associated with less toxicity than the conventional preparation. Data on the use of Liposomal amphotericin b in neonates is scarce. We describe the clinical course of two premature infants who were treated with Liposomal amphotericin b (one infant had candidemia, and the other had candidemia and meningitis), and provide a summary of previously published experience on this topic. Liposomal amphotericin b may be an option for therapy of invasive candidiasis in neonates who are at high risk of nephrotoxicity and other amphotericin-related reactions, but clinical trials are necessary to document its safety and efficacy in this age group. ( info)

3/1054. cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship?

    lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection. ( info)

4/1054. brain dysgenesis in Cornelia de lange syndrome.

    The neuropathological findings in a neonatal case of Cornelia de lange syndrome (CDLS) were described. Two different types of lesions were revealed in the affected brain. The first type was classified as perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, associated with cyanotic congenital heart anomalies: subarachnoideal, intraventricular, and parenchymal hemorrhage, and multiple necrosis in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, internal capsule, thalamus, mammillary bodies and dentate nucleus. This type may be non-specific and common in premature babies dying soon after birth. On the other hand, the second type was classified as congenital dysgenesis of the brain: microbrachycephaly, immature or simple convolution pattern of the cerebral gyri, thickened leptomeninges, persistent subpial granule cells, hypoplasia of the anterior thalamic nuclei, neurohypophysis, lateral geniculate body, cerebral peduncle, ventral pons and cerebellar internal granular layer, and heterotopic cell nests in the cerebellar white matter. This type may indicate that the maturation of the brain can be disturbed in the fetal period, particularly in the mid-gestational period. In conclusion, pathognomonic or specific changes of CDLS might be absent in the brain. However, congenital dysgenesis of the brain, especially that found in the diencephalon and the cortico-ponto-cerebellar system, may constitute morphologic evidence explaining the severe growth retardation and neurological abnormalities in CDLS. ( info)

5/1054. crisis intervention in a newborn nursery intensive care unit.

    premature birth of a defective infant challenges personal and family integrity, and immediate intervention is optimal in reaching a positive outcome. The G. case exemplifies many aspects of crisis theory; worker intervention was built around them. As the G. family struggled with the impact of a severely damaged infant, a broad range of worker techniques, based on the parents' strengths and personal backgrounds, was required. Intervention was significant in effecting a positive resolution. This article details the events endured by the G. family, and the way in which they experienced them during their baby's first 3 weeks of life. ( info)

6/1054. serratia marcescens pseudobacteraemia in neonates associated with a contaminated blood glucose/lactate analyzer confirmed by molecular typing.

    Three episodes of serratia marcescens pseudobacteraemia occurred on a neonatal intensive care unit. Following the first two cases, one full term and one pre-term infant, the source was identified as a glucose/lactate analyzer. Blood culture and environmental isolates of the organisms involved were indistinguishable when subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Spe 1 digests and PCR ribotyping. Failure to recognize pseudobacteraemia in neonates results in inappropriate therapy for the individual and increased antibiotic pressures on the unit. attention to the possibility of cross infection when using automated analyzers is required to minimize the risks of true or pseudoinfection to patients. ( info)

7/1054. chorioamnionitis with intact membranes caused by capnocytophaga sputigena.

    We report a case of chorioamnionitis with intact membranes caused by capnocytophaga sputigena. The pregnant woman was hospitalised in preterm labor without fever, neither tenderness, just regular contractions. In spite of the tocolitic treatment the patient gave birth to a girl at 29 weeks' gestation, weighing 1220 g and transferred to intensive care. The newborn had clinical and biological signs of infections and was initially treated by ampicillin, cephalosporin and metronidazol. capnocytophaga sputigena was found on membranes, cord, amniotic fluid and placenta. It was also identified in maternal endocervix culture. Histologic findings showed a focal chorioamnionitis. This was the fourteenth reported case of infection due to capnocytophaga species occurring in pregnancy. All the cases are reviewed. ( info)

8/1054. transillumination for the diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum.

    transillumination of the abdomen with a cold fibreoptic light source was used for the rapid diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in a sick premature infant with necrotising enterocolitis. The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The neonate survived the surgical procedure of resection and anastomosis of the perforated gut. Although additional diagnostic investigations such as x-rays and paracentesis of the abdomen were also positive in this case, transillumination of the abdomen proved to be a useful tool for early diagnosis. transillumination thus is a valuable modality for early diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum, especially where facilities for in-house x-rays are not available. ( info)

9/1054. Disseminated intravascular meconium in a newborn with meconium peritonitis.

    A 3-day-old premature infant with meconium peritonitis, periventricular leukomalacia, and pulmonary hypertension died with respiratory insufficiency. An autopsy disclosed intravascular squamous cells in the lungs, brain, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Numerous pulmonary capillaries and arterioles were occluded by squamous cells, accounting for pulmonary hypertension. brain parenchyma surrounding occluded cerebral vessels showed infarct and gliosis. A mediastinal lymph node filled with squamous cells alluded to the mechanism by which these cells from the peritoneal cavity likely entered the bloodstream--namely, via diaphragmatic pores connecting with lymphatics. Thus, disseminated intravascular meconium rarely may complicate meconium peritonitis and have devastating consequences. ( info)

10/1054. Scar formation after skin injury to the human foetus in utero or the premature neonate.

    A macroscopically visible scar was present at birth in three infants with a history of injury during amniocentesis at 16-20 weeks' gestation. In several neonates born between 21 and 31 weeks' gestation, chemical injury to the skin caused by extravasation of calcium gluconate healed by formation of a large scar. In the infant born at 21 weeks, biopsy of the injured area showed infiltration by large numbers of neutrophils and macrophages. It appears that a very immature neonate can mount a prominent inflammatory reaction and that both a midtrimester foetus and a very immature neonate heal injuries to the skin by scar formation and not by scarless healing. ( info)
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