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1/22. Familial enteropathy: a syndrome of protracted diarrhea from birth, failure to thrive, and hypoplastic villus atrophy.

    We have studied 5 infants with persistent severe diarrhea from birth and marked abnormalities of absorption associated with failure to thrive leading to death in 4 infants. Three had siblings who died and a sibling of a 4th is ill at present, all with a similar illness; 2 were the products of consanguinous marriages. Exhaustive investigation failed to identify a recognized disease entity in any patient. steatorrhea, sugar malabsorption, dehydration, and acidosis were severe in all patients, whatever the diet fed. Total parenteral nutrition was used, but excessive stool water and electrolyte losses persisted even when nothing was fed by mouth. There was no evidence of a hematological or consistent immunological defect in any infant and no abnormalities of intestinal hormones were noted. In the duodenal mucosa of all infants we saw similar abnormalities characterized by villus atrophy, crypt hypoplasia without an increase in mitoses or inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria and in villus enterocytes absence of a brush border, increase in lysosome-like inclusions, and autophagocytosis. In 3 infants studied by marker perfusion of the proximal jejunum we found abnormal glucose absorption and a blunted response of Na absorption to actively transported nonelectrolytes; in 2 there was net secretion of Na and H2O in the basal state. Our patients evidently suffered from a congenital enteropathy which caused profound defects in their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The similar structural lesion seen in the small intestinal epithelium of all of our cases undoubtedly contributed to their compromised intestinal function, but the pathogenesis of this disorder, if indeed it is a single disease, remains obscure.
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2/22. Multiple nutritional deficiencies in infants from a strict vegetarian community.

    Severe nutritional deficiencies developed in four infants from a new vegan religious community. They had received breast milk until the age of 3 months; thereafter, breast milk was supplemented with or replaced by extremely low caloric-density preparations. All of the infants had profound protein-caloric malnutrition, severe rickets, osteoporosis, and vitamin B12 and other deficiencies. One infant died, while the three others had an uneventful recovery. After discharge of the infants from the hospital, the community responded well to a modification of the infants' diet, which did not violate their vegetarian philosophy. However, they refused to give their infants vitamin B12 on a regular basis.
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3/22. malnutrition in infants receiving cult diets: a form of child abuse.

    Severe nutritional disorders, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and rickets, were seen in four children and were due to parental food faddism, which should perhaps be regarded as a form of child abuse. All disorders were corrected with more normal diets and vitamin supplements. In view of the potentially serious consequences of restricted diets being fed to children, families at risk should be identified and acceptable nutritional advice given. When children are found to be suffering from undernutrition due to parental food faddism a court order will normally be a necessary step in providing adequate treatment and supervision.
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4/22. Severe nutritional deficiencies in toddlers resulting from health food milk alternatives.

    It is widely appreciated that health food beverages are not appropriate for infants. Because of continued growth, children beyond infancy remain susceptible to nutritional disorders. We report on 2 cases of severe nutritional deficiency caused by consumption of health food beverages. In both cases, the parents were well-educated, appeared conscientious, and their children received regular medical care. Diagnoses were delayed by a low index of suspicion. In addition, nutritional deficiencies are uncommon in the united states and as a result, US physicians may be unfamiliar with their clinical features. Case 1, a 22-month-old male child, was admitted with severe kwashiorkor. He was breastfed until 13 months of age. Because of a history of chronic eczema and perceived milk intolerance, he was started on a rice beverage after weaning. On average, he consumed 1.5 L of this drink daily. Intake of solid foods was very poor. As this rice beverage, which was fallaciously referred to as rice milk, is extremely low in protein content, the resulting daily protein intake of 0.3 g/kg/day was only 25% of the recommended dietary allowance. In contrast, caloric intake was 72% of the recommended energy intake, so the dietary protein to energy ratio was very low. A photograph of the patient after admission illustrates the typical features of kwashiorkor: generalized edema, hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions, abdominal distention, irritability, and thin, sparse hair. Because of fluid retention, the weight was on the 10th percentile and he had a rotund sugar baby appearance. Laboratory evaluation was remarkable for a serum albumin of 1.0 g/dL (10 g/L), urea nitrogen <0.5 mg/dL (<0.2 mmol/L), and a normocytic anemia with marked anisocytosis. Evaluation for other causes of hypoalbuminemia was negative. Therapy for kwashiorkor was instituted, including gradual refeeding, initially via a nasogastric tube because of severe anorexia. Supplements of potassium, phosphorus, multivitamins, zinc, and folic acid were provided. The patient responded dramatically to refeeding with a rising serum albumin and total resolution of the edema within 3 weeks. At follow-up 1 year later he continued to do well on a regular diet supplemented with a milk-based pediatric nutritional supplement. The mortality of kwashiorkor remains high, because of complications such as infection (kwashiorkor impairs cellular immune defenses) and electrolyte imbalances with ongoing diarrhea. Children in industrialized countries have developed kwashiorkor resulting from the use of a nondairy creamer as a milk alternative, but we were unable to find previous reports of kwashiorkor caused by a health food milk alternative. We suspect that cases have been overlooked. Case 2, a 17-month-old black male, was diagnosed with rickets. He was full-term at birth and was breastfed until 10 months of age, when he was weaned to a soy health food beverage, which was not fortified with vitamin D or calcium. Intake of solid foods was good, but included no animal products. Total daily caloric intake was 114% of the recommended dietary allowance. Dietary vitamin D intake was essentially absent because of the lack of vitamin D-fortified milk. The patient lived in a sunny, warm climate, but because of parental career demands, he had limited sun exposure. His dark complexion further reduced ultraviolet light-induced endogenous skin synthesis of vitamin D. The patient grew and developed normally until after his 9-month check-up, when he had an almost complete growth arrest of both height and weight. The parents reported regression in gross motor milestones. On admission the patient was unable to crawl or roll over. He could maintain a sitting position precariously when so placed. Conversely, his language, fine motor-adaptive, and personal-social skills were well-preserved. Generalized hypotonia, weakness, and decreased muscle bulk were present. Clinical features of rickets present on examination included: frontal bossing, an obvious rachitic rosary (photographed), genu varus, flaring of the wrists, and lumbar kyphoscoliosis. The serum alkaline phosphatase was markedly elevated (1879 U/L), phosphorus was low (1.7 mg/dL), and calcium was low normal (8.9 mg/dL). The 25-hydroxy-vitamin D level was low (7.7 pg/mL) and the parathyroid hormone level was markedly elevated (114 pg/mL). The published radiographs are diagnostic of advanced rickets, showing diffuse osteopenia, frayed metaphyses, widened epiphyseal plates, and a pathologic fracture of the ulna. The patient was treated with ergocalciferol and calcium supplements. The published growth chart demonstrates the dramatic response to therapy. Gross motor milestones were fully regained within 6 months. The prominent neuromuscular manifestations shown by this patient serve as a reminder that rickets should be considered in the differential diagnosis of motor delay. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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5/22. Risks of alternative nutrition in infancy: a case report of severe iodine and carnitine deficiency.

    A 7.5-month-old infant with failure to thrive, developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, a visible goitre and severe osteopenia is described. Laboratory examination revealed a markedly increased serum TSH with low free T4, severe iodine and carnitine deficiency. The infant was breastfed until the age of 2.5 months and was then given a mixture of almond extract in water. The mother is a strict vegan and the father a lactovegetarian. The nutritional intake of the child was severely depleted in calories (-46%), calcium (-73%) and iodine (-88%). The restrictive alternative nutrition was responsible for the various deficiency disorders.
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6/22. Neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration and malnutrition associated with inadequate breastfeeding and elevated breast milk sodium.

    The advantages of breastfeedng to both the mother and infant are well recognised. In rare instances if breasteding is inadequate or if the sodium content bast milk is high, malnutrition and hypernatraemia can result. A 15 days old exclusively breastfed baby presented with inadequate weight gain. On evaluation, he was found to have hypernatraemia and mother's breast milk showed high sodium concentrations. The infant needed parenteral fluid for correction of dehydration and hypernatraemia. His serum sodium and breast milk sodium of the other of the mother returned to normal gradually. He started gaining weight on exclusive breastfeeds. The present paper describes the case report and brief review of the literature.
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7/22. Phrynoderma: a manifestation of vitamin a deficiency?...The rest of the story.

    Phrynoderma is a distinctive form of follicular hyperkeratosis associated with nutritional deficiency. Although originally thought to represent vitamin a deficiency, several studies have demonstrated multiple etiologies. Characteristic skin lesions are hyperkeratotic papules that first appear on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, shoulders, and buttocks. We report a 14-month-old boy with malnourishment and hyperkeratotic papules and plaques with histologic changes typical of phrynoderma. Despite an extensive evaluation, a specific nutritional deficiency was not identified. Phrynoderma is believed to be a manifestation of severe malnutrition, not necessarily accompanying low vitamin A levels. While the literature supports a link between phrynoderma and vitamins E, B, A, and essential fatty acids general malnutrition seems to be the strongest association. The clinical picture typically improves with enhanced nutritional status. Phrynoderma must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with extensor surface hyperkeratotic papules and plaques in the setting of malnourishment and should prompt the clinician to evaluate cell markers of nutritional status, not just vitamin A. We believe this patient exemplifies the conundrum that faces clinicians in evaluating patients with extensor surface predominant hyperkeratotic papules and plaques in the setting of malnourishment.
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8/22. Limited availability of nutritional vitamin D causing inappropriate treatment of vitamin d deficiency rickets with a response resembling pseudohypoparathyroidism type II in a Japanese patient.

    vitamin d deficiency rickets occasionally resembles pseudohypoparathyroidism type II (PHP type II) with respect to the response to exogenous PTH in the presence of hypocalcemia. We encountered a Japanese patient with stage 2 vitamin d deficiency rickets, who had increased urinary cAMP excretion and no response of urinary phosphate or N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase excretion to exogenous PTH under normocalcemic and normophosphatemic conditions, after treatment with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3. This case shows that it is possible for a response mimicking that of PHP type II to occur when the serum calcidiol level is low due to causes other than hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. When the serum calcidiol level is low, the appropriate treatment should be cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol. However, because neither is commercially available as a useful formulation in japan, physicians are forced to inappropriately use calcitriol or analogs.
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9/22. Polymicrobial bacterial sepsis and defective neutrophil chemotaxis in an infant with cystic fibrosis.

    A 4 1/2-month-old, white girl was admitted to the hospital with respiratory distress and persistent polymicrobial bacteremia. cystic fibrosis associated with malnutrition and a transient defect in peripheral neutrophil chemotaxis was diagnosed. This remarkable combination of presenting features in a patient with cystic fibrosis is the focus of this case report.
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10/22. Abnormal sweat electrolytes in a case of celiac disease and a case of psychosocial failure to thrive. review of other reported causes.

    sweat electrolytes were initially elevated in a child who was diagnosed as having celiac disease and also in one with psychosocial failure to thrive. Subsequent sweat tests were normal after nutritional status of the patients had improved with therapy. The reports of elevated sweat electrolytes in conditions other than cystic fibrosis are discussed. It is emphasized that sweat test methods other than the quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis method are not reliable. The occurrence of false-positive sweat tests demonstrates the need for care in the interpretation of elevated sweat electrolytes and the necessity of performing repeat quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis for the establishment of the diagnosis of CF. celiac disease and malnutrition from other causes may cause sweat electrolytes to be elevated.
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