Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/155. Temporary occlusion of middle cerebral artery by macroembolism in carotid surgery.

    Two patients are presented who during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) temporarily showed an obstruction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) mainstem by a macroembolus resulting in cerebral ischaemia. Both cases are unusual examples of CEA and selected from a cohort of more than 1,500 operations. During surgery with general anaesthesia, brain function was monitored with computerized electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. The simultaneous use of EEG and TCD monitoring allowed us to witness the development of intraoperative cerebral ischaemia and to relate these events to a temporary occlusion of the MCA mainstem by a macroembolus. This is the first life report that describes obstruction of a cerebral artery by arterial embolism resulting in cerebral ischaemia. ( info)

2/155. Hyperacute ischemic stroke missed by diffusion-weighted imaging.

    We present two cases of hyperacute ischemic stroke that were initially missed by diffusion-weighted imaging; abnormalities in locations corresponding to focal neurologic deficits were discovered by MR angiography and perfusion-weighted imaging. Within hours, follow-up diffusion-weighted scans revealed partial conversion of the hypoperfused regions to complete stroke. These cases illustrate the potential for a nonresolving stroke-in-evolution to go undetected by diffusion-weighted imaging at hyperacute timepoints. ( info)

3/155. Fatal cerebroembolism from nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis in a trauma patient: case report and review.

    Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a rare condition that may result in an unexpected and usually fatal cerebroembolism. It occurs in a variety of clinical situations, including malignancy, immune disorders, and sepsis, but it has rarely been reported after trauma. The formation of NBTE appears to require a hypercoagulable state and changes in valvular morphology, e.g., during a hyperdynamic state. patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation have a 21% incidence of NBTE. Although NBTE is usually found at autopsy, premorbid detection by echocardiography is currently possible and feasible. Untreated patients have a high incidence of embolic events, but anticoagulation with heparin may be life-saving. A lethal case of NBTE in a severely injured patient is reported here with the purpose of increasing awareness among medical personnel caring for trauma patients. Recommendations have been made for surveillance echocardiography in high-risk patients, e.g., critically ill patients with sepsis or disseminated intravascular coagulation. ( info)

4/155. Invasive aspergillosis presenting as a cavernous sinus mass in immuno competent individuals; report of 3 cases.

    aspergillosis of the cavernous sinus is rare, especially in immuno competent individuals. We report three such cases secondary to paranasal sinus aspergillosis, with imaging findings. ( info)

5/155. Faces call for attention: evidence from patients with visual extinction.

    Three patients with left spatial neglect and visual extinction from right brain damage were studied to determine whether faces are privileged in summoning attention. In a first experiment, either a face, a name, or a meaningless shape were briefly presented in the right, left or both visual hemifields. On bilateral trials, all patients extinguished a left-side face much less often than a left-side name or a left-side shape. Conversely, they extinguished a left-side shape more often when it was accompanied by a right-side face rather than a right-side name. In a second experiment, either a face or a scrambled face could appear in the right, left or both hemifields. Again, on bilateral trials, a left-side face was less likely to be missed than a scrambled one. These results suggest an advantage of faces in capturing attention and overcoming extinction, which may be related to their special biological and social value, or to the very efficient and automatic operation of specific perceptual processses that extract facial organization in extrastriate visual areas. These findings also demonstrate that the distribution of spatial attention and extinction can be modulated by the relevance of visual stimuli. This implies that substantial analysis and categorization may take place in the visual system before information from the contralesional field is selected for, or excluded from, attentive vision. ( info)

6/155. Intra-arterial thrombolysis for the treatment of perioperative childhood cardioembolic stroke.

    Local intra-arterial lysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) was performed in a 6 and 2/3-year-old patient with major cardioembolic ischemic stroke 48 hours after intracardiac surgery. Selective application of 2.5 mg rTPA (0.11 mg/kg body weight) resulted in recanalization of the occluded cerebral vasculature with good neurologic recovery. ( info)

7/155. reoperation for a type I aortic dissection: case report.

    Surgery for the repair of a type I aortic dissection presents several difficulties for the surgeon and the perfusionist. One must safely support the patient, while at the same time provide the surgeon with a bloodless field in which to operate. Often, this requires cessation of the circulation for varying amounts of time. Deep hypothermia allows for an extension of the arrest period, while other techniques-- retrograde cerebral perfusion and antegrade cerebral perfusion--provide an additional degree of cerebral protection. Recently, we utilized these techniques concurrently on a 43-year-old female who presented for a reoperation for a type I aortic dissection. Combining these techniques allowed us to adequately support the patient during an anticipated lengthy period of circulatory arrest and insured a successful operation without any adverse cerebral or other organ dysfunction. ( info)

8/155. Clinical experience with cerebral oximetry in stroke and cardiac arrest.

    OBJECTIVE: To address the ability and reliability of the INVOS 3100A (Somanetics, Troy, MI) cerebral oximeter to detect cerebral desaturation in patients and the interpretation of cerebral oximetry measurements using the INVOS 3100A in stroke and cardiac arrest. DESIGN: case reports of two patients. SETTING: Neurologic intensive care Unit of a University Hospital. patients: Two patients suffering occlusive strokes of the middle cerebral artery. One later suffered a cardiac arrest. RESULTS: The first case, a patient who suffered cardiac arrest while undergoing continuous cerebral oximetry, clearly demonstrated the ability of the INVOS 3100A to detect rapid tissue vascular oxyhemoglobin desaturation in the brain during circulatory arrest. In the second case, oximetry readings were obtained in a patient with a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an infarct in the middle cerebral artery territory. The circulation of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory was intact. Stable xenon-computed tomography of local cerebral blood flow showed no perfusion in the infarct, and oximetry readings were between 60 and 65. In the border zone between the middle cerebral artery and the ACA, readings of 35 to 40 were obtained, and over the ACA territory, the readings were in the 60s. CONCLUSIONS: oximetry by near infrared spectroscopy reflects the balance between regional oxygen supply and demand. In dead or infarcted nonmetabolizing brain, saturation may be near normal because of sequestered cerebral venous blood in capillaries and venous capacitance vessels and contribution from overlying tissue. In regionally or globally ischemic, but metabolizing brain, saturation decreases because oxygen supply is insufficient to meet metabolic demand. These observations are supported by previously reported "normal" readings in unperfused or dead brains. ( info)

9/155. Cerebral embolism in a patient with polycythemia rubra vera.

    polycythemia rubra vera (PRV) is a rare haematological disorder that has a high risk of stroke, although the pathophysiological origin of the cerebral ischaemia in this disease is not well known. We report a case of a stroke patient with PRV in whom bilateral embolic signals were detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD). Cerebral computed tomography showed a cortical middle cerebral artery infarction, echocardiography was normal, duplex-scan showed moderate left carotid stenosis and digital angiography disclosed right siphon stenosis. TCD examinations in the acute phase repeatedly showed a great number of bilateral microembolic signals (MESs). Four months later magnetic resonance angiography showed no flow signal in the right siphon and a severe stenosis of the proximal right MCA. The detection of bilateral MESs in the absence of cardiac sources of embolism observed in this patient suggests that ischaemic cerebral events in PRV may have an embolic origin favoured by a prothrombotic state. ( info)

10/155. Postoperative stroke in a child with cerebral palsy heterozygous for factor v Leiden.

    A 5-year-old with spastic quadraparetic cerebral palsy suffered multiple strokes after extensive orthopedic surgery. Coagulation testing was undertaken to determine whether a familial thrombophilia was present. The patient was found to be heterozygous for factor v Leiden. factor v Leiden may be a risk factor for central nervous system events in special-needs children, particularly when common medical conditions create additional procoagulant risks. ( info)
| Next ->

Leave a message about 'Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.