Cases reported "Infarction"

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1/124. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome presented by total infarction of right kidney with nephrotic syndrome.

    We report the case of a young woman with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which presented with acute renal failure, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and nephrotic proteinuria. Investigations showed total infarction of right kidney by extensive arterial and vein thrombosis and presence of anticardiolipin antibodies IgG isotype (anti-beta2-glycoprotein I-positive). She was submitted to right nefrectomy and initiated anticoagulant therapy. After nefrectomy, the postoperative period was marked by the development of arterial hypertension and persistence of nephrotic syndrome. hypertension was treated with antihypertensive drugs (IECA, beta-blocker and calcium antagonist). As the nephrotic syndrome persisted despite anticoagulant and antihypertensive therapy, the patient was treated with oral corticosteroids. Her renal function improved, hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia corrected to normal values and proteinuria decreased to subnephrotic value. We discuss the unusual presentation of this case of primary antiphospholipid syndrome with total unilateral renal thrombosis and nephrotic syndrome that respond to anticoagulant, antihypertensive and corticosteroid therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/124. Juxtapapillary nerve fiber layer infarction as a complication of coronary artery bypass surgery.

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have detailed the prevalence and etiology of ocular complications resulting from coronary artery bypass surgery. Of these, retinal nerve fiber layer infarctions are reported most commonly. The clinical sequelae of nerve infarction may include loss of visual acuity, compromised pupillary function, and visual-field defects (the severity of which may be correlated with the location and extent of the insulted tissue). methods: A patient who had experienced bilateral juxtapapillary nerve fiber layer infarction with subsequent loss of visual acuity and peripheral visual field was followed postoperatively for more than 6 weeks. Immediately before our examination, he underwent quadruple coronary artery bypass graft surgery. RESULTS: From the data collected during initial and follow-up examinations, it was determined that the nerve fiber layer infarction was probably the result of a systemic ischemic event during an otherwise uncomplicated surgery. Such events may include hypovolemic blood loss, systemic hypotension during or following surgery, or a host of complications that would prevent adequate perfusion to capillaries in select regions of the eye. CONCLUSION: The pathology of bilateral juxatapapillary nerve fiber layer infarction as a result of substantial transient systemic ischemia may be explained by examining the microcirculation of this region of the retina. Due to certain anatomic and physiologic characteristics, the capillaries supplying the peripapillary zone are most susceptible to arterial vascular events such as ischemia. It is important to recognize this clinical presentation in order to rule out other possible causes for decreased visual acuity and field defects in the postoperative coronary bypass surgery patient.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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3/124. Functional, life-threatening disorders and splenectomy following liver transplantation.

    splenectomy (SPL) in cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation (LTx) may resolve specific problems related to the procedure itself, in case of functional and life-threatening clinical situations often occurring as a result of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. METHOD: A single-center experience of ten splenectomies in a series of 180 consecutive adult liver transplant patients over a period of 6 yr is reported. The mean patient age was 46.8 /- 9.5 yr (range 25 57 yr). Indications for SPL were post-operative massive ascitic fluid loss (n = 3), severe thrombocytopenia (n = 3), acute intra-abdominal hemorrhage (n = 2), infarction of the spleen (n = 1), and multiple splenic artery aneurysms (n = 1). RESULTS: Extreme ascites production due to functional graft congestion disappeared post-SPL, with an improvement of the hepatic and renal functions. SPL was also effective in cases of thrombocytopenia persistence post-LTx, leading to an increase in the platelet count after about 1 wk. Bleeding episodes related to left-sided portal hypertension or trauma were also resolved. The rejection rate during hospitalization was 0%, and no other episodes were recorded in the course of the long-term follow-up. However, sepsis with a fatal outcome occurred in 4 patients, i.e. between 2 and 3 wk post-SPL in three cases and 1 yr after the procedure as a result of pneumococcal infection in the last case. Fatal traumatic cranial injury occurred 3 yr post-LTx in another case. Five patients (50%) are still alive and asymptomatic after a median follow-up period of 36 months. CONCLUSION: The lowering of the portal flow appears to resolve unexplained post-operative ascitic fluid loss as a result of functional graft congestion following LTx. However, because of the enhanced risk of SPL-related sepsis, a partial splenic embolization (PSE) or a spleno-renal shunt could be used as an alternative procedure because it allows us to preserve the immunological function of the spleen. SPL is indicated in case of post-transplant bleeding due to left-sided portal hypertension and trauma, spleen infarction, and to enable prevention of hemorrhage in liver transplant patients with multiple splenic artery aneurysms. Severe and persistent thrombocytopenia could be treated with PSE. Because the occurrence of fatal sepsis post-SPL is a major complication in LTx, functional disorders, such as ascites and thrombocytopenia, should be treated with a more conservative approach.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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4/124. Surgical repair of type B aortic dissection complicated by early postoperative lung vein and artery thrombosis.

    A 24-year old man with marfan syndrome previously operated for abdominal aortic aneurysm and type A dissection sustained a type B dissection. He underwent graft replacement of the descending and upper abdominal aorta, complicated by infarction of the left upper lobe and lobectomy was carried out. The postoperative course was uneventful. The mechanism for this rare complication is discussed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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5/124. Os odontoideum with cerebellar infarction: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVES: To report the case of a child with os odontoideum associated with cerebellar infarction and to discuss the correlation between atlantoaxial instability with os odontoideum and vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: knowledge of the influence of atlantoaxial instability on vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency remains limited despite the publication of several reports. methods: A 5-year-old boy with ataxic gait disturbance was hospitalized in the pediatric ward. magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebellar infarctions, and cerebral angiogram showed occlusions of several branches of the basilar artery and a winding of the left vertebral artery. Stress lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed atlantoaxial instability with os odontoideum. Posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation with iliac bone graft was applied to obtain firm stability and fusion. RESULTS: There was no damage to the vertebral arteries or spinal nerves in the perioperative period. Solid union of the grafted bone and rigid stability of the atlantoaxial joint were seen on lateral flexion-extension radiographs 1 year after the operation. There has been no sign of recurrent arterial insufficiency, and the patient has been free from cerebellar dysfunction to date. CONCLUSIONS: Atlantoaxial instability may cause insufficiency of the vertebral artery as well as spinal cord injury. More attention should be paid to the possible relation between atlantoaxial instability and vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/124. Segmental infarction of the omentum secondary to torsion: ultrasound and computed tomography diagnosis.

    Segmental infarction of the omentum is a rare clinical entity that is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis for acute abdominal pain, especially as the clinical findings are so non-specific. Consequently, the diagnosis is usually made intraoperatively. The two cases presented here demonstrate the characteristic appearance of omental infarction on ultrasound and CT, which enables preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative radiological diagnosis may prevent unnecessary surgery.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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7/124. Two cases of orbital infarction syndrome.

    Orbital infarction syndrome is defined as ischemia of all intraorbital and intraocular structures. It is a rare disease caused by rich anastomotic vascularization of the orbit. It can occur secondary to different conditions, such as, acute perfusion failure, systemic vasculitis, orbital cellulitis and vasculitis. It results in orbital and ocular pain, total ophthalmoplegia, anterior and posterior segment ischemia, and acute blindness. We report here upon two cases of orbital infarction with similar presentations but with different causes, namely, mucormycosis and as a postoperative complication of intracranial aneurysm, discuss the possible mechanisms of orbital infarction, and present a review of the literature on the topic. The prompt recognition of clinical pictures and rapid diagnosis is essential for the early treatment of orbital infarction, since its progression is very rapid and it can be even fatal.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/124. Primary segmental infarction of the greater omentum: a rare cause of RLQ syndrome: laparoscopic resection.

    The authors report a rare case of a patient with a primary segmental infarction of the greater omentum who reported acute abdominal pain. Despite preoperative clinical studies and imaging evaluation, an etiologic diagnosis could not be determined. The diagnosis of this uncommon disease was determined after initial laparoscopic exploration. A laparoscopic resection was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged within 12 hours. The differential diagnosis of the right lower quadrant syndrome includes several disorders, of which the primary segmental infarction of the greater omentum is not frequent. The authors emphasize the usefulness of routine laparoscopic exploration in patients with RLQ syndrome because it adds the possibility of mini-invasive treatment to the initial diagnosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/124. Laparoscopic treatment of two patients with omental infarction mimicking acute appendicitis.

    BACKGROUND: Omental infarction is a rare entity that usually causes symptoms similar to those of appendicitis. Ultrasound or computerized tomography scan can diagnose omental infarction preoperatively. methods: We treated two patients with omental infarction by performing a laparoscopic omentectomy in each one. RESULTS: The pathology verified the operative diagnosis, and both patients were discharged home on the first postoperative day. CONCLUSION: Omental infarction can be accurately diagnosed and safely treated with laparoscopy. Key Words: laparoscopy, Omental infarction, Acute abdominal pain.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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10/124. Idiopathic segmental infarction of the greater omentum as a cause of acute abdomen report of two cases and review of the literature.

    The segmental infarction of the greater omentum is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its etiology is uncertain although several predisposing factors have been underlined such as congenital venous anomalies, sudden change of position and substantial meal. The clinical picture simulates an appendicitis or cholecystitis, thus being difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis. However, ultrasonography or computed tomography scan can help us make this diagnosis and then we alternatively perform a conservative treatment, laparoscopic approach or resection by laparotomy. We present two cases, preoperatively diagnosed by ultrasonography and computed tomography scan that were treated by laparotomy resection. We also review the published cases in the medical literature.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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