Cases reported "Infection"

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1/70. Selective antibody deficiency to bacterial polysaccharide antigens in patients with netherton syndrome.

    Three patients with netherton syndrome, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and humoral immune deficiency are described. Although quantitative serum immunoglobulin levels were generally normal, two patients had selective antibody deficiency to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, one associated with IgA-IgG-2 deficiency. A third patient had an antibody deficiency to protein antigens. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that describes antibody deficiency in patients with netherton syndrome. This finding demonstrates the importance of evaluating functional antibody responses to both protein and bacterial polysaccharide antigens and not relying on IgG subclass determination.
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2/70. Clinical and scientific importance of source control in abdominal infections: summary of a symposium.

    In May 1997, a panel of surgeon-investigators met to discuss the clinical importance and research implications of controlling the source of abdominal infections. It was concluded that source control is critical to therapeutic success and that antimicrobial therapy and other adjunctive interventions will fail if the source of infection is not controlled by resection, exteriorization or other means. The panelists presented different definitions of source control, depending on the scientific purpose of the definition. All participants agreed that failure to consider the adequacy of source control of infection has limited the value of most clinical trials of therapeutic anti-infective agents. Besides recognizing source control as an essential goal of patient care, the panelists emphasized the need for further investigative work to define, record and stratify the adequacy of source control in clinical trials of therapeutic agents for abdominal infections.
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keywords = iga
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3/70. Regression of cancer following surgery.

    Postsurgical tumor regressions are rare but well-recognized entities. The causes of such phenomena are unknown but probably are multiple. Regression of any tumor must ultimately come about by changes in the host-tumor interaction which suddenly becomes unfavorable for tumor growth. This is likely a manifestation of changes in the immunocompetence of the host. There are many variables influencing the host-tumor interaction, and the study of tumor immunology is stil in its infancy. It is through the exploration and investigation of basic mechanisms of the immunology of cancer that the most potentially fruitful associations between tumor growth or regression and surgical manipulations may be made and applied to the treatment of cancer patients.
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keywords = iga
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4/70. Evolution of iga deficiency to IgG subclass deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency.

    FIRST REPORT: male child with repeated pulmonary infections from the age of 4 months. He was diagnosed as iga deficiency (undetectable IgA levels) at the age of 3 years, when he presented repeated bouts of pneumonia and tonsillitis. Several immunologic evaluations were made between the ages of 4 months and 8 years. At 8 years and 9 months, the diagnosis of iga deficiency was confirmed, and associated IgG2 and IgG4 deficiency (29.0 mg/dl y 0.01 mg/dl) with normal total IgG serum level was found. With the administration of intravenous gammaglobulin, the lung infections remitted and the subsequent clinical course has been uneventful up to now. SECOND REPORT: a boy with repeated infections since the age of 2 months. iga deficiency was diagnosed at 1 year 7 months (undetectable serum IgA levels). At age 51/2 years, his clinical course worsened and more serious infections appeared. A new immunologic study revealed iga deficiency associated with CD4 cell deficiency (432 cells/mm3) and normal CD3, CD19, and CD8 levels. Despite intensive antibiotic treatment and care, the child died. The findings suggest an association of iga deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency.
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keywords = deficiency
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5/70. Paradoxical emboli after central venous catheter removal.

    central venous catheters are widely used in intensive medicine to provide blood product, nutritional and antibiotic support. A 45-year-old man with an unsuspected patent foramen ovale underwent a bone marrow allograft for poor-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. His venous line was removed because of probable infection, and he simultaneously sustained a myocardial infarct and a cerebrovascular accident. He made a good recovery from both, but subsequently died of relapsed disease. Appropriate pre-transplant screening investigations are discussed, and the differential diagnosis of this complication in the bone marrow transplant setting.
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6/70. A preterm baby with Omenn syndrome.

    A preterm baby born with scaly skin who later developed recurrent infections and was subsequently diagnosed to have Omenn syndrome is presented. CONCLUSION: Any baby with ichthyotic skin and recurrent infections should have immunodeficiency considered in the differential diagnosis.
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keywords = deficiency
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7/70. Hypogammaglobulinemia and reduced numbers of B-cells in children with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency in pediatric patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has not been described. We report the clinical course of three children with MDS, hypogammaglobulinemia, and reduced numbers of B-cells and B-cell precursors. OBSERVATIONS: Three patients with recurrent infection who were younger than 1-year-old had MDS of the refractory anemia (RA) subtype diagnosed. All had reduced numbers of circulating B-cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. In two patients, cytogenetic studies revealed a monosomy 7 karyotype and bone marrow studies showed decreased numbers of CD34 progenitor cells and CD 19 B-cells. Both patients had prolonged courses (7 yrs 10 mos and 6 yrs 9 mos) characterized by recurrent infection and slowly progressive pancytopenia. Both received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The third patient had normal cytogenetic studies and a normal number of CD34 progenitors but decreased CD19 B-cells in the bone marrow. She had a stable course with refractory anemia over the course of 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with MDS may have hypogammaglobulinemia and reduced numbers of B-cells. These findings do not preclude a relatively stable and prolonged clinical course. Children with newly diagnosed MDS should have an immunologic evaluation in addition to their hematologic assessment.
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8/70. incontinentia pigmenti in a surviving male is accompanied by hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and recurrent infection.

    Familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked dominant condition. The affected cases have characteristic skin lesions, hair, eye, teeth and nail abnormalities and may also have neurological problems. The diagnosis has traditionally been made on clinical grounds. Segregation analysis has suggested that it is lethal in males. Only one liveborn male has been reported who died at one day of age. female cases of IP survive because of the moderating effects of Lyonization. This child was the affected son of a female with IP. He had a novel phenotype consistent with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (HED-id) but with additional features: he had major problems with hematological disturbances, failure to thrive due to malabsorption, recurrent infections, generalized osteosclerosis and lymphedema of his lower limbs. He also demonstrated some typical features of IP with a generalized reticular skin hyperpigmentation, sparse hair and delayed eruption of teeth. The gene for NEMO (nf-kappa b Essential Modulator) has recently been shown to be mutated in cases of IP. Furthermore, most (80%) of patients possess a recurrent genomic rearrangement that deletes part of the gene resulting in an inactive NEMO protein. In the male case described here, a NEMO stop codon mutation has been identified that has arisen de novo in his affected mother. This mutation is likely to have a less severe effect on NEMO activity and may explain why this child survived for two years and 7 months.
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keywords = deficiency
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9/70. common variable immunodeficiency, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease.

    common variable immunodeficiency is a disorder characterised by hypogammaglobulinemia with b-lymphocytes in peripheral blood and repeated infections. We report a child with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and celiac disease during lactation, and in whom common variable immunodeficiency was diagnosed at the age of 5. During evolution of the disease he presented multiple respiratory infections in spite of substitution therapy with gamma globulins. He presented pulmonary fibrosis with a pulmonary volume reduced, and a spirometric restrictive patron. Immunologically, he presents reduction in CD4 lymphoid population. He expresses the alleles DQ2 A1 0501 and B1 which are strongly associated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease, but don't express antigens HLA class II DR3 and DR4 that are more frequent in these entities. The main disease and all the complications had affected his curve pondostatural.
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10/70. Alterations of the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene SH2D1A in common variable immunodeficiency syndrome.

    X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the SH2D1A gene. At least 3 major manifestations characterize its clinical presentation: fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM), lymphomas, and immunoglobulin deficiencies. common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a syndrome characterized by immunoglobulin deficiency leading to susceptibility to infection. In some patients with CVID, a defective btk or CD40-L gene has been found, but most often there is no clearly identified etiology. Here, 2 unrelated families in whom male members were affected by CVID were examined for a defect in the XLP gene. In one family previously reported in the literature as having progressive immunoglobulin deficiencies, 3 brothers were examined for recurrent respiratory infections, whereas female family members showed only elevated serum immunoglobulin a levels. A grandson of one of the brothers died of a severe aspergillus infection secondary to progressive immunoglobulin deficiency, FIM, aplastic anemia, and B-cell lymphoma. In the second family, 2 brothers had B lymphocytopenia and immunoglobulin deficiencies. X-linked agammaglobulinemia syndrome was excluded genetically, and they were classified as having CVID. The occurrence of FIM in a male cousin of the brothers led to the XLP diagnosis. Because the SH2D1A gene was found altered in both families, these findings indicate that XLP must be considered when more than one male patient with CVID is encountered in the same family, and SH2D1A must be analyzed in all male patients with CVID. Moreover, these data link defects in the SH2D1A gene to abnormal B-lymphocyte development and to dysgammaglobulinemia in female members of families with XLP disease.
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keywords = deficiency
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