Cases reported "Infectious Mononucleosis"

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1/290. Massive splenomegaly and Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis in a patient with gaucher disease.

    PURPOSE: gaucher disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who has unexplained or disproportionate splenomegaly. patients AND methods: A previously asymptomatic adolescent with EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis and massive splenomegaly is described. He was found to have gaucher disease on bone marrow biopsy, which was performed to exclude a hematologic malignancy. The diagnosis was confirmed by assay of beta-glucosidase enzyme activity. RESULTS: Regression of splenomegaly and improving hematologic indices. CONCLUSION: patients with infectious mononucleosis and disproportionate organomegaly should be investigated to exclude a hematologic malignancy or an underlying storage disorder such as gaucher disease.
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2/290. Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder with foscarnet alone in an adult after simultaneous heart and renal transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The kind and intensity of immunosuppression as well as Epstein-Barr virus, a transforming herpes virus that selectively infects B lymphocytes and causes infectious mononucleosis, have been implicated in the development of posttransplantation lymph-proliferative disorders (PT-LPD), a life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation. The morphologic spectrum of PT-LPD ranges from polymorphous hyperplasia to monomorphous B-non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Among different modalities of treatment, reduction of immunosuppression with or without co-administration of antiviral agents may result in PT-LPD regression especially in mononucleosis-like disease. methods: Nonmononucleosis-like PT-LPD in a simultaneous heart and renal recipient was treated with foscarnet, a potent inhibitor of different herpes viruses with a low profile of toxicity, although intensive immunosuppression therapy was maintained. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A 4-week course of foscarnet resulted in relapse-free complete remission (follow-up 10 months). Thus, antiviral treatment with foscarnet, may induce prolonged remission in nonmononucleosis-like PT-LPD without reduction of immunosuppression.
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3/290. A boy with fatal infectious mononucleosis suspected as the first Japanese case of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    We report a case of a 10-month-old boy who died of severe hepatic failure after a prolonged course of infectious mononucleosis. He also presented interstitial pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis and aplastic anaemia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity had not been detected in his peripheral blood during the course of the illness. Studies of his mother revealed a severe reactivation pattern of anti-EBV antibodies and decreased EBV-specific CTL activity. An X-linked familial susceptibility to EBV infection such as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) might be associated with his fatal EBV infection.
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4/290. Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis with a lymphoma-like response in an immunocompetent host.

    We report the clinical and neuropathological findings in an immunocompetent 19-year-old patient with a fatal acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) meningoencephalitis and a lymphoma-like B-lymphocyte response. Our results suggest that an immunotoxic rather than direct viral neuronal invasion mediates brain damage in EBV encephalitis and rule out primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in our patient. We discuss immunosuppression as a therapeutic option, because present strategies mainly consist of symptomatic therapy due to unclear pathogenesis and nonavailability of effective antiviral agents.
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5/290. An infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome induced by minocycline: a third pattern of adverse drug reaction.

    A 22-year-old black man developed fever, chills, fatigue, night sweats, tender lymphadenopathy, and a generalized, pruritic, macular eruption 3 weeks after starting minocycline therapy for acne. His illness was also characterized by a palpable spleen tip, marked lower extremity and scrotal edema, and generalized lymphadenopathy. The patient had leukocytosis with a large percentage of atypical lymphocytes on peripheral smear and liver dysfunction. Titers for Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis b, toxoplasmosis; and cytomegalovirus were all negative. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 viral load and antibodies were also negative. Marked improvement was noted after the discontinuation of minocycline and the use of systemic corticosteroids. With the negative viral serologies, the clinical picture was most consistent with an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome produced by the minocycline ingestion.
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6/290. A case of severe chronic active infection with Epstein-Barr virus: immunologic deficiencies associated with a lytic virus strain.

    infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a self-limiting, lymphoproliferative disease induced by primary infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). infection with EBV leads in general to lifelong asymptomatic persistence of the virus. We report the case of a woman who acquired IM at the age of 15 years and then suffered from recurrent high fever, fatigue, and signs of immunologic disorder for more than 12 years until she died of liver failure. In an attempt to describe and to define the course of chronic active infection with EBV, we performed immunologic and molecular assays that demonstrated lytic replication of EBV in the B and T cells of the peripheral blood. In addition to signs of humoral and cellular immune deficiency, we detected an EBV strain with an impaired capability to immortalize B cells and a tendency to lytic replication, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of this chronic active infection.
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7/290. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first such reported case, along with a survey of archival autopsy cases to assess baseline expression of EBV in AIDS patients. DESIGN: The case patient's autopsy material was studied exhaustively for infectious agents by culture, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry, with negative results. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung, spleen, lymph node, and liver tissue were further studied by in situ hybridization using a probe for EBV early rna (EBER, Kreatech). The same method was applied to lymphoid tissues from eight other archival AIDS autopsy cases. Case patient tissues were also examined by electron microscopy. RESULTS: Strikingly numerous lymphocytes were positive for EBV early rna in the case patient's spleen, lymph nodes, and hepatic portal areas. In addition to positive lymphocytes in the lung, EBV-infected pneumocytes were also present. Electron microscopy also demonstrated viral material in lymphocytes and pneumocytes. Of the archival cases studied, only one spleen was found to have rare positive lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Primary or reactivation EBV infection may represent a previously underreported cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. autopsy tissues from AIDS patients do not routinely show overexpression of EBV early rna by in situ hybridization, making this technique ideal for assessing the contribution of EBV to terminal events in these patients.
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8/290. intestinal pseudo-obstruction and acute pandysautonomia associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    We report the association of neurological and intestinal disorders with the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a child. This previously healthy 13-yr-old boy presented with pharyngitis and acute abdominal ileus. laparotomy excluded a mechanical obstruction. Postoperatively, he suffered from prolonged intestinal obstruction, pandysautonomia, and encephalomyelitis. Histological examination of the appendix and a rectal biopsy taken 3 months after the onset showed an absence of ganglion cells (appendix) and hypoganglionosis (rectum), with a mononucleate inflammatory infiltrate in close contact with the myenteric neural plexuses. EBV-PCR was positive in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and in situ hybridization with the Epstein-Barr virus encoded rna probe showed positive cells throughout the appendix wall including the myenteric area, in a mesenteric lymph node, and in the gastric biopsies. EBV spontaneous lymphocytic proliferation was noted in the blood. The serology for EBV showed previous infection but anti-early antigen antibodies were present. No immunodeficiency was found. Neurological and GI recovery occurred after 6 months of parenteral nutrition and bethanechol. The omnipresence of EBV associated with the neurointestinal symptoms suggest that the virus was the causal agent. This is the first documented case of acquired hypoganglionnosis due to EBV reactivation.
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9/290. Familial cases of severe measles pneumonia.

    We report two cases of severe measles pneumonia. Patient 1, a 17-year-old boy who contracted measles in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), transmitted the disease to patient 2, his father. Both patients presented severe pneumonia with bilateral diffuse micronodular shadows. Diagnoses were established in both patients by antibody titers for measles and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of blood and throat swab. Multinucleated giant cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies were revealed in the transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimen of patient 2. Both patients recovered with pulse steroid therapy.
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10/290. Case report: an unusal cause of stridor in a post-liver transplant 6-year old.

    Polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorder is a recognised cause of upper airway obstruction in children [N. Sculerati, M. Arriga, Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol 99 (1990) 445-450]. It is associated with long-term immunosuppression therapy and frequently with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection [D.W. Hanto, Annu. Rev. Med. 46 (1995) 381-394; B.D. Fletcher, H.E. Heslop, H.C. Kaste, S. Bodner, Upper airway obstruction and pulmonary abnormalities due to lymphoproliferative disease following bone marrow transplantation in children, Pediatr. Radiol. 28 (1998) 492-496]. The prevalence in reported series ranges from 4 to 13% among post-transplant children [M. Ho, R. Jaffe, G. Miller, Transplantation 45 (1988) 719-727; G.B. Hammer, S. Cao, M.G. Boltz, A. Messner, anesthesiology 89 (1998) 263-265; B.V. Lattyak, P. Rosenthal, Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting in the head and neck, Laryngoscope 108 (1998) 1195-1198]. This condition may present in the transplanted allograft, the gastrointestinal tract, the head and neck, and in particular in the upper airway. Previously reported cases of upper airway obstruction have been in the supraglottis, Waldeyer's ring, the glottis, and one case of an intra tracheal mass [M. Ho, R. Jaffe, G. Miller, Transplantation 45 (1988) 719-727; G.B. Hammer, S. Cao, M.G. Boltz, A. Messner, anesthesiology 89 (1998) 263-265]. We report a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the sub-glottis causing acute upper airway obstruction with negative (EBV) serology.
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