Cases reported "Infertility"

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1/8. Implementation of assisted reproductive technologies following conservative management of FIGO grade I endometrial adenocarcinoma and/or complex hyperplasia with atypia.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to report a series of infertility therapy outcomes following conservative management of endometrial adenocarcinoma and/or complex hyperplasia with atypia. methods: A retrospective review of the University of iowa assisted reproductive technology database was performed. All women presenting with International Federation of obstetrics and gynecology (FIGO) grade I uterine adenocarcinoma and/or complex hyperplasia with atypia were assessed for type and duration of medical management, initial, interim treatment, and preinfertility treatment endometrial biopsy (BX) findings. Assessment of infertility treatment outcomes and postinfertility endometrial biopsy findings were performed. All of the pathology samples were re-reviewed at the Gynecologic Oncology Tumor Board to confirm the diagnosis by a pathologist with a particular expertise in gynecologic pathology. RESULTS: Four infertile women, three nulligravid and one primigravid, were evaluated with the diagnosis of FIGO grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma and/or complex hyperplasia with atypia desiring to preserve fertility. Two women with FIGO grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma were successfully treated with high-dose progestational agents resulting in normal proliferative endometrium. In addition, both women with complex hyperplasia with atypia were successfully treated with progestins and/or ovulation induction. Successful pregnancy outcomes were achieved for three of the four women with assisted reproductive technology. A total of five successful pregnancies and eight healthy live-born infants were achieved among three women. One of the four women was unable to conceive despite three cycles of in vitro fertilization. hysterectomy was performed for recurrent complex hyperplasia with atypia. In our series, we found it can take 3-10 months (mean, 6.25 months; median, 6 months) to obtain benign endometrium preceding infertility therapy. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates that conservative management of well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma and/or complex hyperplasia with atypia followed by aggressive assisted reproduction is an option to highly motivated and carefully selected women.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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2/8. subclavian vein thrombosis following IVF and ovarian hyperstimulation: a case report.

    Thromboembolic phenomena are a serious consequence of assisted reproductive technology. We present a case of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at 7 weeks gestation following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and IVF. Three weeks after recovering from OHSS, the patient presented with left neck pain and swelling. Ultrasound revealed a thrombus in the left jugular vein and left subclavian vein. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was initiated with symptom resolution within 1 week. The patient remained on LWMH throughout her pregnancy and delivered at term. A literature review showed 97 published cases of thromboembolism following ovulation induction. A majority of these cases was associated with OHSS and pregnancy and the site of involvement was predominantly in the upper extremity and neck. infertility physicians and obstetricians should be aware of this complication and keep in mind that it may occur weeks after resolution of OHSS symptoms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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3/8. Unusual presentation of a woman with polycystic ovaries and complex endometrial pathology.

    A 28-year-old woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) had attempted four assisted conception treatments, all of which were complicated by lack of response of the endometrium to the hypo-oestrogenic state induced with gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa). Consequently, two treatment cycles were abandoned, one prior to the ovulation induction of a fresh IVF treatment and the other prior to oestrogen replacement for a frozen-thawed embryo transfer treatment cycle. Extended down-regulation eventually resulted in endometrial thinning and allowed completion of the other two treatments, but the outcome was negative. A targeted mid-cycle ultrasound scan in a natural cycle at follow-up showed thick, non-homogenous endometrium. A repeat hysteroscopy on this occasion showed abnormal endometrium with chalk-like deposits. Histological diagnosis was chronic endometritis and endometrial hyperplasia with focal atypia. Microbiological tests, including those for mycobacterium tuberculosis, were negative. Because of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, this patient is currently under close follow-up by the original referring team. This case highlights inherent endometrial pathology presenting as non-responding endometrium to hormonal down-regulation, the limitations of conventional ultrasound scans, and the complimentary role of concomitant hysteroscopy in the correct identification of endometrial lesions that may negatively affect the assisted conception treatments.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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4/8. Synergistic effect of growth hormone and gonadotropins in achieving conception in "clonidine-negative" patients with unexplained infertility.

    Based on preliminary reports by others and by us of a potentiating effect of growth hormone (GH) on human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)-induced ovulation, a study using a randomized, prospective, cross-over protocol between GH hMG/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hMG/hCG was undertaken. The study included patients with long-standing (2-11 years) unexplained infertility with a negative or reduced GH response to clonidine (up to 150 micrograms of clonidine orally). The first cycle was randomly assigned between GH/hMG/hCG (study cycle) and hMG/hCG alone (control cycle), and after an interval cycle the patient's treatment was crossed over. All patients who completed the study had previously undergone 1-20 attempts at ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 5-40 cycles of ovulation induction for in vivo fertilization at three different medical centers. Three patients conceived on the combined GH/hMG cycle, with diminution in the hMG consumption needed for ovulation induction in the study cycles. Another patient with long-standing mechanical infertility underwent 11 abortive attempts at ovulation induction with hMG for IVF but has never achieved egg retrieval. On the GH/hMG/hCG ovulation induction cycle, three mature ova were retrieved as opposed to no response and cancellation of the "hMG only" cycle. Another patient with 11 years of primary infertility who had undergone 21 previous attempts at ovulation induction and had reached follicular aspiration in only three of those cycles conceived spontaneously on the first cycle after the GH/hMG/hCG IVF/ET cycle. All four pregnancies that have been achieved by now in seven GH/hMG-treated patients ended in cesarean deliveries of four normal male neonates. No correlation was found between the follicular fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor i (IGF-I) and the fertilization rate in vitro. The peripheral IGF-I levels were significantly higher during the follicular phase of the study cycles than during the respective stage of the control cycles or the luteal phase of either cycle. A study of serum GH-binding protein (GH-BP) levels revealed gradual increases in the late follicular phase, in the luteal phase, and in early pregnancy. On the basis of this study and in keeping with earlier reports, we conclude that the addition of GH to hMG/hCG may serve as a contributory adjunct in selected patients. However, in contrast to others who could not find a correlation between the response to acute tests for GH release and the ovarian response to combined treatment, we conclude that the clonidine test can play a discriminatory role in identifying patients who may benefit from this innovative combination.
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ranking = 7
keywords = ovulation
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5/8. Pregnancies from fallopian replacement of immature eggs with delayed intrauterine insemination.

    gamete intrafallopian transfer requires that a woman should not only have patent tubes but should also have had mature eggs collected for replacement. eggs must be collected as close to ovulation as possible, to give them a good chance of fertilizing upon replacing them directly into the tubes with the spermatozoa. Preliminary results from three patients who received Fallopian replacement of immature eggs followed by delayed intrauterine insemination indicate that maturation of eggs can occur in vivo in the fallopian tubes. Intrauterine insemination at a later time when the eggs were judged to be mature has given rise to two pregnancies from the three patients with whom this procedure was adopted.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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6/8. Treatment of male sperm autoimmunity by in-vitro fertilization with washed spermatozoa.

    Pregnancies have been achieved in two couples with prolonged infertility in whom no apparent abnormalities were found, except for the presence of seminal plasma autospermagglutinins in the male partners. Using a method previously advocated for artificial insemination by husband, the semen was collected directly into Tyrode's solution and immediately dispersed. After they were washed and resuspended in Tyrode's solution, the spermatozoa were used for the in-vitro fertilization of the wife's ova collected after induced ovulation. In a condition characterized by the difficulty of achieving sperm-ovum contact and interaction, this approach allows close monitoring of all stages of this process and appears to circumvent any expected difficulties.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ovulation
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7/8. Transfusion-dependent homozygous beta-thalassaemia major: successful twin pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization and tubal embryo transfer.

    Homozygous beta-thalassaemia (thalassaemia major) is a severe, transfusion-dependent anaemia that also causes infertility due to endocrine impairment. Very few pregnancies are reported among such patients and there is only one report in the literature referring to a pregnancy achieved with ovulation induction and intra-uterine insemination. We report here the first successful twin pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization and tubal embryo transfer in a transfusion-dependent homozygous beta-thalassaemic woman with an oligoasthenozoospermic partner. Prior to ovarian stimulation, desferrioxamine was discontinued due to potential fetotoxicity. Pre-gestational transfusional and chelating therapies were resumed after delivery. In such patients, ovulation induction and assisted reproductive techniques appear crucial in achieving pregnancy with concurrent haematological balance without desferrioxamine administration.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ovulation
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8/8. Successful birth after intrafallopian transfer of microhatched embryos.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a successful transfer of microhatched embryos to the fallopian tubes via microlaparoscopy. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: private practice affiliated with a medical university. PATIENT: A 40-year-old woman with primary infertility, mildly elevated baseline FSH levels, and a history of poor ovarian response to ovulation induction. Her husband had severe oligoospermia after vasectomy reversal. INTERVENTION(S): Late luteal leuprolide acetate to pituitary down-regulation followed by pure FSH, 300 IU, and hMG, 300 IU, daily for ovulation induction. Transvaginal oocyte retrieval, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted embryo hatching, microlaparoscopic intrafallopian ET. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): amniocentesis at the 14th week of gestation revealed a normal karyotype (46,XX), birth of a normal female infant (3700 g). RESULT(S): Establishment of a single, viable intrauterine gestation followed by a vaginal delivery at term. CONCLUSION(S): This case shows the possibility of using assisted-hatched embryos for laparoscopic intrafallopian tube transfer.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ovulation
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