Cases reported "Infertility"

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1/23. Analysis of the sex chromosome constitution of sperm in men with a 47, XYY mosaic karyotype by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in the sperm of two men with a 47,XYY/46,XY karyotype. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: infertility clinic in a teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): One patient with near normal semen parameters whose wife had a history of miscarriages and one patient with primary infertility and severe oligoasthenozoospermia. INTERVENTION(S): cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes and three-color X/Y/18 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of sperm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Analysis of sex chromosome disomy and diploidy rates in sperm. RESULT(S): Both patients had a 47,XYY/46,XY karyotype. The hyperdiploidy rate of patient 1 was 19% and that of patient 2 was 90%. The incidence of disomy XY was significantly elevated in both patients compared with the controls (0.23% and 1.02%, respectively, versus 0.10%). The incidence of disomy YY (0.44% versus 0.10%) was increased only in patient 2, as was the incidence of disomy 18 (0.49% versus 0.09%) and the rate of diploidy (0.83% versus 0.13%). The rate of 24,XX sperm in both patients was not different from that in the controls. CONCLUSION(S): patients with a 47,XYY mosaic karyotype may be at risk of producing offspring with a hyperdiploid sex constitution. These patients should have their sperm investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine their particular risks before they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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2/23. Administration of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in a woman with allergic reaction to menotropin: a case report.

    This report describes a patient who experienced a generalized allergic reaction to Pergonal during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in preparation for an intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure for treatment of severe male factor infertility. The report describes a successful desensitization protocol which allowed the patient to complete her treatment cycle despite the allergic reaction to Pergonal. Subsequently recombinant follicle stimulating hormone was used successfully in inducing follicular growth in the absence of any allergic reactions. Therefore, this report confirms other studies which have suggested that an allergic reaction to human menopausal gonadotropins is due to impurities in such urine-derived products.
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3/23. pregnancy after cytoplasmic transfer in a couple suffering from idiopathic infertility: case report.

    Couples suffering from idiopathic infertility are among the most difficult to treat in IVF cycles due to the unknown cause of failure to reproduce. This can lead to years of unsuccessful attempts to conceive and often the abandonment of treatment. In some couples, the only observable problem is the development of poor quality embryos. In this case report, we describe the successful use of cytoplasmic donation in a couple where the high level of embryo fragmentation and poor embryo development was thought to be the unique cause of failure to conceive after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We noted a strong reduction in embryo fragmentation and a consequent increase in embryo quality after the treatment. Transfer of four of the embryos receiving donor cytoplasm led to a pregnancy with two gestational sacs and the birth of healthy twins.
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4/23. Medical and psychological management of recurrent abortion, history of postneonatal death, ectopic pregnancy and infertility: successful implementation of IVF for multifactorial reproductive dysfunction. A case report.

    The medical and psychological treatment for a 37-year-old Caucasian G6 P1051 woman who presented for evaluation of secondary infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss is described. Although one living child had been conceived without medical assistance, that delivery preceded the present evaluation by ten years and involved a different partner. With the current husband, the patient had two miscarriages and a left ectopic pregnancy. The couple had attempted controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) elsewhere, but the cycle was cancelled due to poor follicular response. About one year before consultation at our institution, the couple established a pregnancy although the infant was born at 24 weeks with a cardiac anomaly, living only 40 days. Additionally, a persistent cervical lesion required cone biopsy before any fertility treatment could resume. andrology evaluation found the husband's sperm dna fragmentation index to be 48.6%. This constellation of stressors represented substantial emotional issues and psychological therapy/counseling was recommended. After obtaining psychological clearance, the couple underwent IVF and 16 oocytes were retrieved. Four embryos were transferred, and a healthy male infant was delivered at term. Although multifactorial infertility can be associated with very poor reproductive outcomes, the advanced reproductive technologies merit consideration during management of complex clinical challenges. Standard IVF strategies can be optimized by inclusion of thorough psychological assessment and counseling.
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5/23. Case report: delirium associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is one of the most important complications of assisted reproductive technologies. Mild OHSS is characterized by ovarian enlargement and abdominal discomfort. In severe cases anasarca, hepatic dysfunction, reduced blood volume, electrolyte imbalance, organ failure and thromboembolic phenomena may be observed. delirium is a syndrome, not a disease, and has many causes, all of which result in a similar pattern of signs and symptoms relating to a patient's level of consciousness and cognitive impairment. delirium remains an under-recognized and under-diagnosed clinical disorder. The case is presented of a 30-year-old woman with OHSS and delirium. She underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for severe male factor infertility. Five days after oocyte retrieval, ascite formation was observed in ultrasonographic evaluation, and embryo transfer was cancelled. Twelve days after retrieval she came to the emergency clinic with abdominal distension and pain. She was hospitalized and paracentesis was performed every other day three times. She had altered consciousness and psychomotor hypoactivity 1 h after the last paracentesis. Psychiatric consultation revealed that she was in a state of delirium, and haloperidol was administered for treatment. Her symptoms disappeared within a week. Her medication was stopped when symptoms resolved and she was still asymptomatic in psychiatric evaluation 1 week later.
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6/23. Successful pregnancy after ICSI with strontium oocyte activation in low rates of fertilization.

    fertilization failure (complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates) after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can occur in rare cases. In the majority of these cases, the unfertilized oocytes are inactivated. Assisted oocyte activation was applied as a treatment option for a case of low fertilization rate as a clinical trial. A patient with a low fertilization rate (ranging from 0% to 33.3%; mean = 17.0%) after eight previous ICSI cycles at another hospital, was diagnosed with fertilization failure. The most likely cause of fertilization failure was failure of oocyte activation. Therefore, artificial oocyte activation by strontium treatment was combined with ICSI to achieve viable fertilized oocytes. oocytes were stimulated with strontium (10 mM SrCl(2), 60 min) approximately 30 min after ICSl. Six injected oocytes were stimulated and all were then successfully fertilized. Two blastocysts were transferred into the uterus, resulting in a pregnancy and birth. A second pregnancy was achieved following implantation of two cryopreserved embryos (one blastocyst and one morula). In conclusion, strontium treatment was found to be an effective method for artificial oocyte activation in a case with a low fertilization rate after ICSI.
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7/23. Isolation of chlamydia trachomatis during IVF-ET.

    The Authors isolated chlamydia trachomatis from the granulosa and from the spermatozoa of an infertile couple taking part in the IVF-ET program at the Department of obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Pisa.
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8/23. Pregnancies from fallopian replacement of immature eggs with delayed intrauterine insemination.

    gamete intrafallopian transfer requires that a woman should not only have patent tubes but should also have had mature eggs collected for replacement. eggs must be collected as close to ovulation as possible, to give them a good chance of fertilizing upon replacing them directly into the tubes with the spermatozoa. Preliminary results from three patients who received Fallopian replacement of immature eggs followed by delayed intrauterine insemination indicate that maturation of eggs can occur in vivo in the fallopian tubes. Intrauterine insemination at a later time when the eggs were judged to be mature has given rise to two pregnancies from the three patients with whom this procedure was adopted.
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9/23. leydig cells within the aspermatogenic seminiferous tubules.

    Cells identical to leydig cells were found within a peritubular boundary layer and even inside a basal lamina of seminiferous tubules in three male patients (two with inguinal cryptorchism and one with infertility). The seminiferous tubules of all patients showed a moderate to marked thickening of the boundary layer and a complete loss of spermatogenic cells. The "ectopic leydig cells" were characterized by the presence of Reinke crystals or an extensively developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. These cells were believed to have differentiated in situ from myoid cells within the boundary layer and also to have invaded from the interstitial tissue in the form of mature leydig cells. The occurrence of ectopic leydig cells appeared to parallel the extent of loss of the sertoli cells and also that of the thickening of the boundary layer. The functional significance of the ectopic occurrence might be implicated in the impaired spermatogenesis.
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10/23. Persistent mullerian structures in infertile male.

    Mullerian duct derivatives were identified in an infertile adult male patient who had long-standing azoospermia and was operated on for inguinal hernia. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is reviewed, with special emphasis on the pathophysiologic and surgical considerations involved in the treatment of this abnormality.
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