Cases reported "Inflammation"

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1/8. Influence of natural exposure to pollens and domestic animals on airway responsiveness and inflammation in sensitized non-asthmatic subjects.

    BACKGROUND: Atopy may be a risk factor in the development of asthma. Indoor allergens are considered to be more potent asthma inducers than outdoor ones such as pollens. Lower airway inflammation may be present in non-asthmatic subjects during natural exposure to relevant allergens and may eventually lead to the development of asthma. AIMS: To document seasonal variation in lower airway responsiveness and inflammation in sensitized non-asthmatic subjects, during natural exposure to allergens, and to determine whether it is more marked in those exposed to animals to which they are sensitized. methods: Twenty-two atopic subjects were seen during and out of the pollen season. All (but the controls) were sensitized to domestic animals, and to trees, grasses or ragweed. Eleven were not exposed to animals at home and 8 were exposed. They were compared with 3 normal controls. A respiratory questionnaire was administered, allergy skin prick tests, spirometry, methacholine challenge, blood and induced sputum with differential cell counts were obtained during the pollen season for all subjects. These tests were repeated out of the pollen season. RESULTS: Throughout the study, none of the subjects had asthma symptoms. Mean PC(20) was significantly lower in subjects exposed to animals compared with unexposed subjects or controls, both during and out of the pollen season. In season, subjects exposed to animals had significantly higher sputum eosinophil numbers than unexposed or normal control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic atopic subjects show variable degrees of airway responsiveness and inflammation. However, subjects exposed to animals show higher airway eosinophilia, which may suggest they are at increased risk of developing airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma.
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2/8. Acupuncture for immune-mediated disorders. literature review and clinical applications.

    Acupuncture activates the defense systems. It influences specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral immunities; activates cell proliferation, including blood, reticuloendothelial, and traumatized cells; and activates leucocytosis, microbicidal activity, antibodies, globulin, complement, and interferon. It modulates hypothalamic-pituitary control of the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems, especially microcirculation, response of smooth and striated muscle, and local and general thermoregulation. Immunostimulant points include LI-4, LI-11, ST-36, GB-39, SP-6, GV-14, BL-11, BL-20, BL-23, BL-24, BL-25, BL-26, BL-27, BL-28, and CV-12. Some, such as BL-47, are immunosuppressive. Antifebrile points include GV-14 and ST-36. Reactive reflex SHU points, MU points, and earpoints are useful in organic diseases. In immunomediated diseases, some or all of these points can be used with other points, especially local points and points of the major symptoms or points of the affected body part, area, function, or organ. Applications of acupuncture include treatment of inflammation and trauma; stimulation of tissue healing in burns, ulcers, indolent wounds, ischemia, necrosis, and gangrene; infections; postinfection sequelae; fever; autoimmune disease; allergies; anaphylaxis and shock; and treatment or prevention of side effects from cytotoxic chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. acupuncture therapy may inhibit neoplastic cells. Examples of acupuncture use in immunomediated conditions in small animals are given.
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3/8. Early inflammatory reaction after rotator cuff repair with a porcine small intestine submucosal implant: a report of 4 cases.

    BACKGROUND: Porcine small intestine submucosal grafts have been successful in enhancing soft tissue repair, as demonstrated by animal studies. Currently, there are no reports of the use of such implants in human rotator cuff repair. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. methods: Over a 6-month period, 25 patients underwent rotator cuff repair by one surgeon using the Restore Orthobiologic Implant to augment the repaired tendon or fill a defect. RESULTS: Four of 25 patients experienced an overt inflammatory reaction at a mean of 13 days postoperatively. All patients underwent open irrigation and debridement of the rotator cuff and porcine small intestine submucosal implant. CONCLUSION: Porcine small intestine submucosal implants should be used in rotator cuff surgery with the awareness that a non-specific inflammatory reaction can occur in the early postoperative period. This inflammatory reaction may cause breakdown of the repair. Further studies are needed to further characterize the reaction and determine which patients are susceptible.
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4/8. Oral antifungal-exacerbated inflammatory flare-up reactions of dermatomycosis : case reports and review of the literature.

    Inflammatory flare-up reactions of some dermatomycoses, particularly those caused by zoophilic fungi, are typical and potentially severe adverse effects following the intake of some oral antifungals. However, this condition has not previously been reported with the most frequently used antifungals in dermatology, namely fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In this report, we describe five patients, observed over a 10-year period, who presented with inflammatory exacerbations following oral antifungal therapy for dermatomycoses. We also review the literature on inflammatory reactions exacerbated by oral antifungal agents. Details of the patients' age, sex, occupation, and atopic background; the site of the lesion, its clinical and histologic features, and any systemic signs; the identity of the fungal pathogen; the antifungal agent taken by the patient; the time between drug intake and occurrence of the flare-up; the approach to management; and the outcome were documented for each patient. A pubmed literature search was also conducted, focusing on inflammatory exacerbations induced by griseofulvin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and terbinafine. The patients were four farmers and one veterinarian (all male). All primary lesions were inflammatory dermatophytoses, including one kerion. Inflammatory exacerbation of the skin lesions started 12-24 hours after the intake of oral antifungals. Mild systemic changes, including slight fever and malaise, occurred in two cases. itraconazole 400 mg/day was implicated as the causative agent in four cases and terbinafine 250 mg/day in one case. Mycologic cultures grew Trichophytonverrucosum in four cases. Antifungal treatment was discontinued in all patients. Oral and topical corticosteroids were administered to the two patients with systemic changes; the other three patients were treated with topical corticosteroids only. Two days after the onset of corticosteroids, lower doses of itraconazole (100 mg/day) and terbinafine (125 mg/day) were reintroduced. All lesions healed after 4-5 weeks. The pubmed search did not identify any articles that described inflammatory exacerbations of dermatomycoses induced by oral antifungals.Inflammatory flare-up of dermatomycoses is a rare but potentially severe cutaneous complication of oral antifungal use. Occupational contact with animals, inflammatory dermatomycoses, and zoophilic fungi represent common features in these patients. Although evidence-based data are not available, clinical experience shows that, in addition to antifungal therapy, topical and/or systemic corticosteroids are helpful to reduce the inflammatory reactions. The cases described in this article represent the first published report of oral antifungal-exacerbated inflammatory flare-up reactions of dermatomycosis in patients taking itraconazole or terbinafine.
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5/8. Chronic orbital inflammatory disease: parasitisation of orbital leucocytes by mollicute-like organisms.

    Chronic orbital inflammatory disease (COID) is usually considered non-infectious and idiopathic. Treatment is empirical, palliative, and may not prevent disease progression. COID occurs in isolation or in association with various systemic diseases. exophthalmos may be an important presenting sign. vasculitis, lymphoid infiltrates, and granulomas are common. Mollicute-like organisms (MLO) parasitising and destroying vitreous leucocytes are often found to cause human chronic uveitis when an appropriate search is made. Inoculation of these MLO into mouse eyelids produced chronic uveitis and exophthalmic orbital inflammatory disease. Mollicutes are cell wall deficient bacteria. Extracellular mollicutes cause human and animal diseases characterised by lymphoid infiltrates, immunosuppression, and autoantibody production. Intracellular morphologically similar bacteria are non-cultivable pathogens termed MLO. Identification is based on direct detection in diseased cells by transmission electron microscopy. MLO are cytopathogenic and detection is aided by the alterations they produce. MLO replace the cytoplasm, destroy the organelles, and alter the nucleus. This results in cell proliferation, destruction, and dysfunction. MLO parasitise lymphocytes, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. This report describes orbital leucocytes parasitised by MLO in three patients with isolated COID. Rifampicin treatment of MLO disease is discussed.
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6/8. Detection of acute inflammation with 111In-labeled nonspecific polyclonal IgG.

    The detection of focal sites of inflammation is an integral part of the clinical evaluation of the febrile patient. When anatomically distinct abscesses are present, lesion detection can be accomplished by standard radiographic techniques, particularly in patients with normal anatomy. At the phlegmon stage, however, and in patients who have undergone surgery, these techniques are considerably less effective. While radionuclide methods, such as gallium-67 (67Ga)-citrate and indium-111 (111In)-labeled WBCs have been relatively successful for the detection of early inflammation, neither approach is ideal. In the course of studies addressing the use of specific organism-directed antibodies for imaging experimental infections in animals, we observed that nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin g (IgG) localized as well as specific antibodies. Preliminary experiments suggested that the Fc portion of IgG is necessary for effective inflammation localization. Since polyclonal IgG in gram quantities has been safely used for therapy in patients with immune deficiency states, we decided to test whether milligram quantities of radiolabeled IgG could image focal sites of inflammation in humans. Thus far, we have studied a series of 84 patients with suspected lesions in the abdomen, pelvis, vascular grafts, lungs, or bones/joints. In 48 of 52 patients with focal lesions detected by surgery, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound (US), the IgG scan correctly localized the site, while 31 patients without focal inflammation had no abnormal focal localization of the radiopharmaceutical. Four patients had false negative scans and one patient had a false positive scan. For this small series, the overall sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 95%, respectively. In this report, we review our experience with this exciting new agent.
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7/8. thalidomide for autoimmune disease.

    The therapeutic efficacy of thalidomide in erythema nodosum leprosum suggests that thalidomide might play a useful therapeutic role in other human immune-complex diseases. thalidomide has shown anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive actions in several animal models. Current evidence suggests that its rapid activity in ENL may result from suppression of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Scattered anecdotal clinical reports of apparent response to thalidomide in various autoimmune diseases are hardly conclusive, but underline the desirability of appropriate pilot trials of thalidomide in autoimmune diseases, particularly those in which immune complex deposition plays a prominent role. Provided that a contraindication in fertile women is strictly observed, thalidomide therapy appears to be quite safe.
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8/8. The role of neutrophils in inflammation.

    It has long been noted that inflammation underlies asthma. It is now recognized that there is marked heterogeneity in the stimuli that can cause or aggravate this inflammation, the cells that are involved in the response and the consequences in terms of both pathology and symptoms. The prime role of eosinophilic inflammation in the pathogenesis of asthma is acknowledged in this paper, but the potential role of neutrophilic inflammation to underlie symptoms and physiological changes that are characteristic of asthma is highlighted. A minority group of patients appear to have asthma from clinical signs, but their airway secretions do not contain eosinophils. Their response to treatment is unlike that of patients with typical eosinophilic airway inflammation in that they do not respond to steroid therapy. Published data from in vitro and animal work provide a conceptual framework to explain these observations. The refinement of the technique of examining sputum cellular content to assess airway inflammation provides an opportunity to identify and study this subgroup of patients.
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